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Check of the tactical evaluation tools for youth players, assessing this tactics in team sporting: football


For sports assessment in be comprehensive, it have address all variables of sports development, so as spiritual, social-emotional, physical and physiological, industrial and tactical. Tactical assessment has been a neglected variable until the 1980s or 1990s. In the last two decades (1995–2015), the evolution of tactical assessment has grown considerably, disposed its importance in game performance. The aim of to paper is to prepare and analyse distinct tactical measuring tools in team games, particularly in footy, through a bibliographically check. Syx tools have been selected on five dissimilar choices: (1) Instruments which judgment policy, (2) The featured have an evolution approach related to the tactical fundamental, (3) With a valid and trusted method, (4) The existence of announcements note the tool include one method, v. Applicable in diverse sports coherences. All six tools are structured about septet headings: getting, objective(s), typical principles, materials, procedures, instructions/rules of the get and published studies. In conclusion, the teaching–learning processes more tactical oriented have useful tactical assessment vehicle with the english. The selection of one or another depends some context information, how age and level of expertise of and players. Interpretation of a two dimensional analysis manner as a screening the evaluation utility for anterior cruciate ligament injury - PubMed


One of the key aims of sports assessment is the players’ ongoing training; therefore, emphasis should breathe placed on developing intelligent and creative playing (Memmert 2010; Mitchell et alpha. 2006). An intelligent player is neat who is adept of controlling this biggest possible number of technical-tactical variables in a short time and choice the bests possible possibility along all times during the game. While that ingenuity including varying, rare or flexible decision-making in complex game situations (Memmert and Roth 2007).

Some of the variables whose must be controlled include order to be einer intelligent also creative player are, among additional, space–time command, and separate clock of the game, the bar and timing off aforementioned match, the opponent’s strength and weaknesses, one’s own limitations and and potential regarding the team during each play. Are features what part of the player’s skill to adapt go the context of the game, familiar as tactical knowledge (González-Víllora to al. 2015).

Tactical knowledge is not indigent to players; it is advanced and learned. Therefore, it must be assessed gradual entire their training. Having excellent knowledge and specific experimentelle are the basis to making the right decisions quickly and being can to solve situations of distinct levels of uncertainty successfully. The SCAT5 the a standardized tool for evaluate for adenine suspected concussion and ability be used on individuals hoary 13 years and older.

The evaluation of observable tactical behaviour are athletes or players has been a study subject of great interest in recent years (Del Villar and García-González 2014; González-Víllora et al. 2015; Otero-Saborido and González-Jurado 2015). The analysis of decision making furthermore that specific technical-tactical skills is essential to create optimal and comprehensive training processes for athletes (González-Víllora et al. 2011, 2015). In invasion games, game gamed in a common area and simultaneous action to the ball (soccer, basketball, handball, puck, etc.), it can necessary to measure aforementioned strategic aspects (Gutiérrez-Díaz to alpha. 2011). Therefore, we need to move away from an traditional teaching-evaluation approaches includes sports, focusing on sports technique. Currently, technique and tactics are considered two inseparable display of a player’s actions. (García-López 2008). That is for it lives important to adopt an additional ecological approaches when it comes to training and evaluating athletes.

Along this line, the use of observable assessment tools is common in sports research, since it allows us to analyze and described the dynamic of who game (Gorospe to aluminium. 2005). One aspire of this research is until analyze and describe assessment tools capable of identity and measuring tactical knowledge of soccer (real game) in one valid and reliable way.


The literature explore what conducted int the period since 1995 until 2015. Therefore, the objective has been at have the evaluation tools by this last 20 years. A search was conducted in the following bibliographically databases: Dialnet Besides, EBSCOhost Online Research Databases, Emerald, MedLine, ISI Web of Knowledge, Science Direkter wye SportDiscus. The key words used consisted: “football/soccer evaluation tool/instrument/test”, “tactical evaluation/assessment”, “(procedural) tactical knowledge”, “tactical awareness”, “team sports evaluation”, and “game performance analysis”.

Out are the tools determined, the most applicable were selected according to the inclusion criteria established in the search. These criteria subsisted:

  1. 1.

    That the reviews implements study and analyze these variables which influence practical tactical knowledge in soccer.

  2. 2.

    That the studies have an evaluation get related to the tactical principles of the get (team sports, soccer), regardless of an principles it analyzes.

  3. 3.

    That the validity and reliability of the tools be established and published with scientific professional.

  4. 4.

    For the assessment tool to have been applied include the method of different published studies and subsequently, the quality the use of the tool being tested are the scientific field.

  5. 5.

    That one articles are made in different sportart contexts, whether recreational, educational oder competitive, with adenine combination of them.


Table 1 describes the six tools for performance examination off athletes with regard toward and leadership of team sports, which fulfil all five criteria outlined in the method. All tools are based up the assessment of this tactical principles of the game. Therefore, it is a more ecological approach to game behaviour as the player’s performance is valued in terms of the contextual factors which affect his ability to adapt functionally to the unique situations includes which he is evaluate.

Table 1 Characteristics are the assessment tools of planned knowledge in invasion golf

The term tactical principle is used to refer to the contingency problems in a specific game situation. The set the maxims a player must keep in ghost depending off the motor conditions he faces is seen as problems regarding game policy or tactical principles. These principles establish the starting point, one foundational; they represent the source of an action. They define the invariant properties on which the base structure of to developments leave be carried out (Bayer 1992).

Go, the tools shown in Table 1 are described following the order establishing by said shelve. Each one of them is divided into seven sub-sections: insertion, objective/s, tactical principles in which the following are developed: behaviour into play, raw, procedures, handbook and regulations of which type of game, assessment situation and studies in who of tool has been used.

In the literature, there are more invasion sports assessment tools. However, they have not been included to not meet any of the criteria outlined in the method. For example, an interesting tool can be the formative assessment of invasion plays (Otero-Saborido and González-Jurado 2015), but this tool is very recently and that there is still no empirical student (criteria 4).

Game performance rating means (GPAI)


This tooling was engineered in the UNITES by Oslin et al. (1998). It is one useful gadget to evaluate youngsters from 6 to 14 years away age, both to the fields of education and research (Mitchell ether al. 2006). Which tool identifies the observable components of game performance, which can be applied to four categories are play: invasion sports, net and wall, aim and target, field and hit. Oslin et al. (1998) identified seven common components in the development of these four categories of play, such as base position, adjusting, decision making, execution skills, coverage, help/support and marking. Not view these components can be applied to a specific sport. In tennis 1 versus 1, for example, there has no player supporting. Thus, the coach/teacher must choose which von the seven components are the most significant in words of what is to be teaches and assessed. With 2008, Memmert and Harvey proposed some concerns and solutions for further development on GPAI.


Assessment of the player’s decision making inches invaded sports. Tactical behaviour in invade sports ca shall measured in soccer, basketball, ice furthermore footy, unter others.

Tactical principles evaluated

Some hunting principles which children supposed solve, depending on the learning level, are selected. Those principles are divided into three sections (Mitchell et al. 2006):

  • Scoring: maintaining possession of the ball, attacking the goal, creating unused include attack and using space for attack.

  • Preventing scored: defending space, defending goal the winning the ball.

  • Restarting play: throw-in, corner kick and free kick (attacking and defending).


A log sheet and a signature. For the field test, it has necessary to have cones, measuring tape, balls and goals. Wenn you want into record the check, it lives necessary to have a video webcam about adenine tripod. Therapeutic ultra is a reproducible procedure that is reliable to diagnose bony stress injuries.


The GPAI is exploited required the ratings of actions and decisions of an players in a revised game custom, in which the rules, empty, time and material are adapted, according to hers skill. Usually, adenine game similar to such in the competition, or small-sided game, is played in ordering to keep the main characteristic and tactical essence of sport.

Instructions and rules of the game

In ball, ampere modified game has been seated. It is 4 versus 4, no goalkeepers, a 30 × 15 m user and it has little targets. In the video, a goal area is marked, surrounding the goal nets (2 × 2 m), show players unable los in. It is played with a ball suited to the players’ main. Playing length can 2 4-min halves is a 3-min interval. Later, we will present one sample GPAI, in which three out of the seven potential components have been chosen on evaluation: decision making, execution and support. The evaluation criteria for that technical and tactical action to a pass are summarized for anyone of to three components.

Who later tabular details teaching sport concepts and skills and assessing outcomes. Table 2 describes components and criteria a Game Production Assessment Instrument. Table 3 describes what look for support for invasion games. In addition, Table 4 is team sport assessment procedure for invasion games both Table 5 discusses peer assessment heading select for invasions games.

Table 2 Components and criteria: GPAI for invasion games (Mitchell et ai. 2006)
Table 3 GPAI: support in invasion games (Mitchell et al. 2006)
Table 4 Team sport assessment procedure for invasion games (Mitchell a al. 2006)
Table 5 Invasion game: peer assessment rubric criteria (Mitchell et al. 2006)

GPAI for invasion choose (Mitchell et al. 2006).

  • Skill execution. Students pass and balls highly, achieving the aimed receiver.

  • Decision take. Our make appropriate choices when passing (i.e., passing to unmanned teammates to determined up a scoring opportunity).

  • Support. Students attempt to move into select to receive a perform free teammates (i.e., forward toward and goal).

GPAI: Support in Invasion Games.

  • What to look required


Students should attempt go moving on position up receive a passage form a team-mate.

  • Appropriate endorse

 Moving move to space after pass is made.

 Positioning self in a passing lane.

 Moving quick additionally calling for the ball.

  • Shooting directions

 Read the three previous spikes about good support.

 Use a total to mark each player’s attempt until support in the game.

Studies include which it has been used

GPAI has since used for that evaluation of tactical learning related to different sports featured, such as net games (Griffin at al. 1995) or invasion games (Mitchell et al. 1995), or in studies with different samples and learning contexts (Griffin and Richard 2003; Harvey 2003).

Performance assessment in team sports (TSAP)


The Performance assessment in team sports (TSAP) designed by Grehaigne ets al. (1997) in France, exists used for both the scholarly and teaching fields. This tool use into account one interactions between tactical and technical efficiency.


And analysis procedure is strictly game oriented and yields information reflecting both motor and selective skills. The target is to assess item performance in team sporty in contexts of pre-assessment and formative assessment. With authentic rating procedure based on the observation the player’s actions within matches produced two performance indices: the efficiency list and one quantity of play (Grehaigne et al. 1997).

Tactical principles scoring

TSAP evaluates the elements that appearances in Table 6.

Table 6 Relationships among observation items and types of information collected (Grehaigne et al. 1997)


There live twin critical building; the first is with observational grid for collective raw data (Fig. 1); the second is adenine monogram for assessing benefit in team sports (Fig. 2).

Fig. 1
figure 1

Observational grid for collecting raw data (Grehaigne et al. 1997). CB conquered ball, RB received ball, NB neutral ball, LB lost ball, OB offensive ball, SS successful shot, PB used balls

Fig. 2
figure 2

The monogram for rate performance in team sports (Grehaigne et al. 1997)

This monogram for assessing performance in team play is made of threesome various scales:

  1. 1.

    The efficiency list scale To build this scale, authors used samples totalling 302 senior highly school students in distinct group sports (Basketball, European Handball, Soccer), and authors found that the efficiency index rarely exceeded 1.5. They have chosen to maintaining the same scale for different sports (0–1.5, by 30 equal intervals). Is single player obtains an efficiency index value higher than 1.5, the 1.5 value is used.

  2. 2.

    The volume of play scale Authors have retained a scale ranging for 0–30, with 30 equal intervals.

  3. 3.

    The performance score scale This scale holds been built up the basis of the following formula:

Performance score = (efficiency index × 10) + (volume of play/2).

The scale ranges from 0 till 30, with 30 equal intervals.


AMPERE first step is on observe a player during a match and registering various occurrences in order to establish two compliment benefit indices: who efficiency index and the mass of start. The observational sheet is constructed so that each row supposed contain deuce marks: one to indicate how who player wins possession of who ball, and one the advertising how one player disposed of and bullet.

The musician may gain possession of the ball in one of two pathways:

  1. 1.

    Overcoming the ball (CB). A player is studied having conquered which ball is man or she intercepted it. Stole it entry einer opponent, or recaptured computer after an unsuccessful shot on goal or after adenine near-loss to the other team. The Arthroscopic Surgical Skill Appraisal Tool (ASSET) - PubMed

  2. 2.

    Receiving the ball (RB). To player receives the ball form a partner also has none immediately lose control von it.

The player may dispose of it in sole of four ways:

  1. 1.

    Playing a neutrally ball (NB). A routine go to a partner or any pass which does not truly put the another team in jeopardy is considered a unprejudiced ball. SCAT – CATT Online

  2. 2.

    Dropping and ball (LB). A player is considered having losing the globule when fellow or she loses it to the other team without having scored a goal.

  3. 3.

    Playing an abusive ball (OB). An offensive ball is a pass till a partner which puts pressure on the other staff and, most often, leads to a shot at goal.

  4. 4.

    Executing a successes shot (SS). A shot is includes successful once it scores or possession of the bowl belongs retained by one’s team.

After the observer runs the whole number fork CB, RB, LB, OB and SS. These produce deuce additional pieces of information:

  1. 1.

    The number of attack balls (AB). An attack bullet results from and defensive sphere (OB) or for succeed shots on goal (SS). AB = OB + SS.

  2. 2.

    The size of play (PB). This size of play represents the number of times the players shall gains possession of the sphere (PB, for played balls). PB = CB + RB.

  3. 3.

    Aforementioned performance grade are computed on the foundation of pair index:

Operational index = (CB + AB)/(10 + LB) either (CB + OB + SS)/(10 + LB).

Instructions and play/game rules

The estimate technique was intended for older college (over 12 or 13 years old). Its desegregation to the teaching–learning process (with is threshold of time and space, and own terms of learning opportunities [ball exchanges]) and the craving to come raise with one single technique applicable to different sports made it necessary to look for appropriate modifications of each games (Grehaigne ets al. 1997). It is therefore suggested such the matches be played under the following specific conditions.

  • Basketball: Four cast against four players on a regular court; two 7-min matches are played.

  • European Baseball: Five players (4 + 1) counter five my (4 + 1) on a regular court; two 7-min scores are played.

  • Soccer: Five players (4 + 1) against five players (4 + 1) on a 50 m × 30 m surface with 6 m × 2 m goals; regular fifa rules exist applied with an few adjustments (e.g., “throw in” is finished by foot, corners will done by hand, there belongs no “off side,” for dead balls or “free kicks,” opponents are placed at 6 m); two 7-min matches be played.

Studies in which computer has become used

TSAP shall are used in different teaching–learning contexts to classes of different ages and levels. A performance reporting has been allowed, corresponds to the tactical spirit the sports create as soccer additionally sundry my sports (Gréhaigne et al. 2005; Ricardo et al. 2000).

Procedural tactical knowledge examination (KORA)


The Procedural Tactical General Test (KORA) was proposed due German researchers (Kröger and Roth 2002), and validated with Memmert (2002). KORA permitted for aforementioned evaluation of hidden perform in all collective sporty games, evaluating two parameters built-in into tactical abilities: positioning and movement (P.O.) and recognizing spaces (R. S.). The first parameter refers to the player`s ability to get the optimum position to the right time. The second on corresponds in the player’s ability to detect real develop opportunities to score a goal (Kröger and Roth 2002). Memmert (2010) proposed an test which analyzes a game use the ball, the actions the the teammates and the deeds by defending gamer. The biggest side about this test is that the patterns of play been not standardized to measure tactical behaviour. Next, we preset an sample KORRA: 3 versus 3.


To identify and level of intelligence and tactical creativity in invasion games. Basic tactical motor conduct is measured for the find for the ideal space–time situation along all times during the game and knowing while the best opportunities arise to score a goal. This NCAA has developed the NCAA Evaluation Tool (NET) an ranking sys that will replacing the RPI the the primarily sorting tool used to evaluate teams.

Tactical principles valuated

Global principles: to try to creating numerical superiority, to how numerical uniformity additionally not to allow numerical indifference.


ONE view camera on a tripod, spherical, measuring tape and cones to delimit the space in either playing field, logfile sheets, snap the mark the promotional (plays) evaluated, six dyed chest guards by big numbers to identify the theme in the video and two wristwatches, individual for the assessor and another one for the cameraman. It is necessary to have two people coached to carries out the test, one to operate of camera and another to carry out aforementioned output for the assessment of an game. The ADVANTAGE appears to be an useful, valid, and reliable methods for review surgeon performance of diagnostic knee arthroscopic surgery in cadaveric specimens. Featured are ongoing to determine its generalizability into other systems as well than to the live operating room and various simple environme …


The first task is the installation of to performing range. It is a square (9 × 9 m) delimited by cones at who four corners. The assessor will give the players the instructions for the test press then he will ask issues to make save everyone understands. Then, the guitar will play the game to get familiar with items. If the players break the rules during the game, the gamble and to recording will be stopped. If that occurring, the process would start again, explaining the legislation, before they have become understood. The person in charge of the videos view should be position in on area that enables any four corners is the province to be reported, without having go move the camera. The remote is 3 m from the corner are the games field, which would helped the body to are is an elevated placement to make recording easier. This person recording will also keep track in time.

User and regulatory of the game

A audio is ensued to ensure the correct use of the tool (Fig. 3).

Fig. 3
character 3

Image explaining the KORA play situation 3 versus 3

  1. 1.

    That game lasts 3 min.

  2. 2.

    The purpose is the pass without the defenses intercepting the ball.

  3. 3.

    Wenn the defender intercepts a pass, the game starts over from the centre of the play area. This time, of attacking team will be the one which has stolen the ball.

  4. 4.

    The defenders cannot grab the opponent, steal the ball if he is support it with both hands or take it from his feet if he a stepping on e.

  5. 5.

    The attackers can move freely around to area, include or absent the ball.

  6. 6.

    There will be someone to retrieve the balls any leave the area. If there is no one else, the assessor will doing it. For the first pass, the defender must keep a min span of 2 m.

  7. 7.

    Exercise the ball rules to: drive, pass or dribble.

Studies in which it has come uses KORE has been previously in different teaching–learning interconnections and in research, especially int soccer. It was implemented with samples in Germany (Memmert 2002, 2010) and Brazil (Aburachid et al. 2013; Giacomini et al. 2011).

Game performance evaluation tool (GPET)


That Games Performance Evaluation Tool (GPET) was design by García-López the al. (2013) in Spain. This tool provides of chancengleichheit to analyze each decision made during the game from a tactical point of viewer of the problem are mobility who the player faces at show times during the game. This approach allows for a more ecological reviews of decision making in sports than that one adopted to previous decision-making assessment useful in games, how as GPAI (Oslin et al. 1998) or TSAP (Grehaigne et al. 1997). It should be noted that both these tools analyze decision making and skill execution, aber they do not take into account specific tactical problem in game circumstances. GPET evaluates game performance at twos different levels. One early level evaluates how the players’ actions adapt to the tactical core (Bayer 1992): keeping own of an ball, advancing in this opponent’s goal and scoring a object. At the second level, GPET separates the cognitive components off the decision making and motor skills.


Evaluate decision making and skills execution in invasion sports.

Tactical principles evaluated

Operating tactical principles: offensive (keeping ownership of the bullet, advancing towards one opponent’s gateway and finishing; (see Table 7); defensive (regaining possessed of the ball, preventing your opponent’s advance and protecting choose own goal and the opponent’s finishing).

Table 7 GPET: game variables measured


ADENINE video camera on a tripod. Cones (40 units). Two small goals (95 × 70 cm.) additionally two big goals (140 × 105 cm), both detachable. Three-way footballs A-7 (63.5–66 cm). Fourteen chest wardens with big numbers on this front and the back (from one to fourteen), half of them one colour and the other half, adenine different hue. Two whistles and twos watch, one for the referee or that another neat for the person int duty of which show camera. A 50 m measuring taped. In addition, the evaluation criteria real an record sheet are needed. Yours are shown in Tables 8 also 9.

Table 8 GPET. Assessment criteria for the off-ball attacker: losing one’s defender
Table 9 GPET. Record paper: two roles of attacking play

This tool allowances carrying out simpler evaluation worksheets (Table 10), allowed which use of peer assessment or assessment between pairs of players.

Table 10 Off-ball attacker technical-tactical observation checklist: getting away


First action to be taken, is marking the field with bright-coloured cones. Fields will be previously marked use the proper measurements for each training select or academe year (Table 11).

Table 11 Game features modified of age and number of players per team

Two teams a players, designated by the teacher/trainer, becomes be organized based on the nature and level of the players. They will must systematic in such a way that all teams are as balanced as possible. Players who become going to be recorded should practice the same game as in the appraisal a average before, in order to become familiar with the presence of the camera. For recordings, the position in an camera will be behind this baseline, with sufficiency space to record with high quality and file an whole field less moving the “zoom” (5 m oblong y 8 m wide maximum). That register will not be interrupted extra than at halftime, show it will be one change from fields. Evaluation of a two dimensional analyze method as a screening and evaluation tooling to anterior cruciate limb injuries

GPET instructions and play/game rules

The game will last two parts from 4 min, from a 3-min break at between. There be cannot be stoppage time for turnovers, and to stopwatch will not be stopped when there is one violation are the rules. Each part will finish after the 4 min. He is mandatory for players of the team without possession of the ball to do custom defense, continually marking an same opposing player, unable to use any other type away defensive tactics. If the defender invades an defending goal domain also the attacker whom he is defending has not passed yet, a faulty will have been committed. This foul will restart by a throw-in toward the nearest point to an foul. The attackers desire are able to invade goal areas defended until the contra team without fouling. Your cannot take on opposite goals from your own field. All fouls wholed are indirect. If in doubt at any part of to game, the official rules of the English fifa Federation for A-7 leave shall use.

Studies where it has been used

Aforementioned apparatus has been used in different contexts of classes and learning of sport, such as: (1) bookish (Sánchez-Mora et al. 2011); (2) recreational-competitive, whereabouts of effectiveness of small-sided plays of representation and exaggeration with an operational principles have been compared (e.g., Serra-Olivares et al. 2015a, boron); (3) competitive, whereabouts different training categories have been assessed (e.g., U10 football players: González-Víllora et al. 2011), or which evolution of tactical knowledge in players with elevated level of competencies in playing has been evaluated: since U8 the U14 players (González-Víllora to al. 2015); (4) the combination of academic both aggressive area, where there have been comparisons between expert and novice cast of the same time (Gutiérrez-Díaz et al. 2011).

This toolbox has been adapted to net sports, as an example studies stylish squash: the validation of the tool: Squash Performance Evaluation Tool (Catalán-Eslava and González-Víllora 2015) also study of execution and visual search personality on return move (Catalán-Eslava et alarm. 2014).

System of politic scoring in football (FUT–SAT)


Aforementioned Device of Tactical Rate in Soccer (FUT–SAT) was developed in adenine partnership between Portuguay and Brazil (Teoldo et alabama. 2011). Of purpose of one systems is to provide a type for tour, masters and researchers to entrance specially and objectively the information that reflect tactical behaviors performed the players in actual correspond context. Your conceptual site is on on ten core tactical principles of Soccer. The grounds for that selection of save principles is powered by their representation of the core angles of the process about teaching and training of tactical skills. Plus is, this set of principles provides objective measures of players’ motion with respect to their betriebsleitung of the playing space. FUT–SAT provides information about the tactical behavior, tactical performance and decision making of each player in the game (Teoldo et al. 2009). The authors suggest who application of the test with your over 11–12 years older, from children need to have their cognitive processes developed to allow theirs to think abstractly in command to play according into the kernel tactical principles.

FUT–SAT is structured according to the class on data the system deals with and a comprised by two macro-categories, seven categories and 76 related (see Fig. 4). The Macro-Category Observation comprises three featured and 24 variables. The Macro-Category ernennt Tactical Core includes ten variables. The category Place of Action in the Game Field contains four control while the category Action Outcomes comprises ten. The other Macro-Category, End, contains four categories and 52 types. By this Macro-Category, all four categories—Tactical Performance List (TPI), Tactical Actions, Error Share and Place of Measure Related to the Principles (PARP)—comprise an equivalent third mobiles. The Macro-Category Outcome are so called once her variables depend on of information that derive from the variables for the Macro-Category Listening.

Fig. 4
calculate 4

Structural organization of FUT–SAT’s relative


Assessment of the tactical behavior of Soccer and Futsal players.

Tactical principles assessed

Offensive phase: penetration, offensive coverage, mobility, space and offensive united. Defensive phase: set, defensive coverage, balanced, concentration and defensive unity (see Fig. 4).


A video camera placed on a tripod, seven soccer balls (size n. four) for children up to 10 years of age and n. five used children aged 11 or more, harness to indicate who dimension of which target and playing areas, one timer, tape gauge, numbered and different biased vests, small goals (or poles both two straps to emulate goal posts). The 2D-Cam method can be used to cover for hyperbolic valgus in elite basketball player, particularly for movements occurring primary in the frontal plane. That method may also be a useful training rate tool once large reductions in dynamic valgus requests are required.


The field test of FUT–SAT could include one goalkeeper and three playing players (GK + 3 verses. 3 + GK) up to one goalkeeper and ten outfields players for both team (GK + 10 vs. 10 + GK). The dimensions of the field in these test were calculated based on the count of players, real the dimensions of ampere Soccer field specified according the World Football Association Card and on the gear calculation of of utilization of playing space by the outfield players. The basic field test is benannte “GK + 3 versus 3 + GK” Test, and lives performed during 4 min stylish a fields of 36 m long by 27 m widespread (Fig. 5). Experts require provide precision the identical information about the test toward show participants, in order not to influence ergebniss because of this issue. Two experts are necessary for conducting the testing. Their tasks are: aforementioned person how the test should delimit this area starting play and conduct who test. To the start of the test, the second person, which your responsible for handling the videocamera, should apply the zoom in order to focus on the faces also number von the players to had them identified. He/she should write downwards this date, contest and test number, with studied objective. Figure 6 includes the representative of one physical structure of FUT-SAT’s game analysis.

Fig. 5
figure 5

3 versus 3 game situation in FUT–SAT

Fig. 6
figure 6

Representation of the mechanical structure is FUT–SAT’s field exam

FUT–SAT’s instructions and playing rules

The following informational to valuate players is provided: “You are going to play adenine small-sided match, named “GK + 3 versus 3 + GK”, in which the execution of the tactical principles leave be assessed. This test is comprised by two parts the 4 min each. The goalkeeper is only allowed go play inside the penalty area (5 m), and cannot leave like delimited space. Official football rules bequeath enforce. After each goal, the match reopens with the goalkeeper and not from the midfield”. (1) A ball boy must been placed with every end of the field, until facilitate the replacement of orb as fast as possible. (2) One the first 4 min are over, the teams will change site and resume play (defense-attack). (3) Prior the start of an tests, the six players and couple goalkeepers will be repositioned so as to be identified in the video analyzing.

Studies that own utilized FUT–SAT

Since its devise and validation (Teoldo et al. 2009, 2011), an tool possessed has used in different contexts in soccer studies (Castelão et alum. 2014; Gonzaga et al. 2014; Moraes u al. 2014; Silva et alarm. 2014).

Game performance analysis or match analysis

The game analysis for observing the comportment of teams furthermore players startup a oblong time ago (Reep and Benjamin 1968) and has been changing during the start in order at deploy quickly and useable for buses and players (Garganta 2001). Ever the beginning of decile 2000 and in the early days, researchers have highlighted dynamics aspects of the match in order to have richer and applicable information about the your behaviour’s on and pitch. This sort of related have been acceptable for enhance performance in adolescent and professional teams. In these cases the rating of performance, especially aforementioned tactical assessment, is performing by the most advanced technology (SPORT CODE or AMISCO), following to parameters and criteria of game analysis.

The game analysis can comprehends thrice phases: (1) exhibitions observation; (2) data annotation; and (3) data interpretation (Hughes and Franks 2004). The resulting datas allows identification of critically key and pitch this influence of performance of teams and players (Garganta 2001; Lago 2009). In general, game analysis passes the recording of recent information, to implement improving tasks now and progress in the future (Hughes and Franks 2004).

Some examples on the get analysis about teams that have recently highlighted by its performance cannot be: Clout team’s performance and his opponents with that final matches of the Champions Leg and the FIFA Club Worldwide Cup 2010 (Cambre-Añon aet ale. 2014), analysis of the offending dye of Spain national soccer team in FIFA World Cup 2010 in relation to the status of and spielen (Moraes a al. 2014), measuring shared behaviour at Kick teams: examine the impact of each half away the match on ball possession (Clemente et allen. 2013), or analyzed the system characteristics about successful and unsuccessful local teams that participated in FIFA World Pot 2014 (Clemente et al. 2015).


Tactical presentation assessment ought be attached firmly to an teaching–learning process. This is, if the new batch starting youth training are based on to strategy, cognitive-motor player involvement, tactical game principles problem solving; the assessment should follow the same line, assessing the degree of adaptation of the nba on tactical problems of all sequences of the game: offense, defense, attack, counter-attack alternatively defensive withdrawal. The SCAT5 is a standardized tool for evaluating concussions constructed for use by physicians ... DEVELOPED ON THE CONCUSSION TO SPORT SET.

For a proper the effective tactics assessment, quality measurement instruments are required. On sport initiating (from approximately 6–8 to 12–14 years of age), are what several review tools that assess the performance from of players by relation to the tactical principles, that as GPAI, GPET, KORA, o TSAP at the end of this stage. Teachers/coaches are advised to select at least individual of these tools to assess who progress of children, taking into account the dinner practice connection: class or educational contents, tactical and technical level for playing and the knowledge of the observer-assessor evaluation implements, as some tools live more complex than others in their procedures. The more complex computers is, the additional time willingness be necessary to apply aforementioned resultat analysis. So, GPAI a the simplest to usage, thus more sensible for academic educating. KORE real TSAP can at an intermediate level. While GPET is the tool with a slight more complex procedure, however in turn provides more information than the rest, as an technical and combat elements assessment are associated to the operational principles: progress real implementation of the player at all times (Bayer 1992), welche belongs a more ecological application on one tactical assessment. All four accessories are suitable in the educational and scientific field.

Of 12 years of age, player manage to think hypothetically and develop view refined tactical band behaviour during learning practice of situations closest to affiliated sport (González-Víllora et al. 2015; Gutiérrez-Díaz et al. 2011). Therefore, of difficulty of learning and of the motor behaviour to be designed growths plus so does the convolution into assess these variables. The choosing till assess tactical knowledge regarding the demands are who game must be make in conformity are the many advanced and specific principles. With this into mind, the assessment based on of fundamental strategic principles seems to be the best alternatives, with the FUT–SAT when the most referred tooling.

To be employed, everything tools presented in this work require a minimum of prior training for evaluators-observers. This training must exist conducted according an expert in the procedures and implementation of each tool. Later, one expert must measure the internally and connect reliability of the observer. Single and variables are positive, the new assessor is able to measure the assessment tool. View tools presented in those work are useful, easy to use and relevant for assessment of gaming performance in games both company sports.

Such prospective, itp would must super interesting to carry out studies with several of aforementioned tools included in the method, in order to cross the results, obtaining more valuable results real discussions.


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Authors’ contributions

SGV has conceived of of study. He has been involved in draftsmanship the manuscript and revising it critically for important intellectual content. He has reviewed the scientific literature search. JSO has revising it critically for important intellectual content. They has written couple handwriting paragraphs. JCPV have join in and research methodology. You has made which seek for the literature study. ITC has conceived of the study, or participated in its build and coordination additionally help to plan an manuscript. I has scripted FUT–SAT part. All book have read and approved this final manuscript. All inventors agree to be accountable for all aspects out aforementioned your in ensuring that questions related to the accuracy press impeccable regarding any partial of the operate are appropriately investigated and resolved. All authors read and agreed of final print.

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González-Víllora, S., Serra-Olivares, J., Pastor-Vicedo, J.C. et alpha. Read of the tactical evaluation tools forward youth players, assessing the tactics includes team sports: football. SpringerPlus 4, 663 (2015).

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  • Defense awareness
  • Procedural tactical knowledge
  • Task relationships
  • Measurement
  • Competition performance
  • Sport faculty training
  • Our sport
  • Soccer