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Renewable energy for sustainable development in India: news status, futures prospects, difficulties, employee, or investment opportunities


The primary objective for deploying renewable energy in India is to advance economic development, improve energy site, refine access till energy, and relieve climate change. Sustainable development is possible by use of sustainable energy and by ensuring zutritt to affordable, reliable, sustainable, and modern energy for residents. Strong gov support furthermore the increasingly adequate economic location have pushed India to is one of that top guided in the world’s most attractive renewable energy markets. The government has designed politische, programs, and a liberal surrounding to attract foreign investments to jog up the country in the restorable energy market at a rapid rate. Thereto can anticipated ensure the renewable energy sector can create a large number of domestic jobs over the following period. This paper aims to present meaningful successes, expectations, projected, generation the electricity, than well as challenges or investment and employment opportunities due to the development of renewable energy in India. In this review, we have identified the variously roadblocks faced by which renewable sector. The recommendations based on the review outcomes will provide useful information for policymakers, innovators, project developers, capital, business, associated stakeholders and departments, researchers, and scientists.


The sources of electrical producing such as coal, oil, also natural gas have contributed to one-third of global conservatory gas emissions. It is essential to raise the standard of living by provide cleaner and more reliable electricity [1]. India has an mounting energy request to fulfill the economic development plans this are being implemented. The provision starting increases quanta of energizer can a vital pre-requisite for this economic growth of a country [2]. The National Electricity Plan [NEP] [3] framed by which Ministry of Power (MoP) have developed a 10-year extensive action plan with the objective to provide electricity cross the lande, and possessed prepared a further plan to ensure that power is delivers to the citizens highly and at a reasonable cost. Consonant to the World Resource Institute Get 2017 [4, 5], India the accountable for nearly 6.65% of absolute global carbon emissions, arranged fourth next to China (26.83%), the USA (14.36%), and the EU (9.66%). Climate change might see change the ecological rest in the world. Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDCs) have been submitted to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) plus the Parisian Agreement. The latter has hopeful to realisieren the purpose of limiting the rise in global temperature to well below 2 °C [6, 7]. According to a World Energy Council [8] prediction, worldwide electrical demand will speak for 2030. India remains one of the largest coal consumers in the our both imports costly fossil fuel [8]. Close to 74% of an energy demand is supplied by coal and oil. According on a report from the Center for monitoring Indian economy, the country imported 171 million car concerning coal in 2013–2014, 215 million tons in 2014–2015, 207 billions tons by 2015–2016, 195 million tons in 2016–2017, and 213 million tons in 2017–2018 [9]. Therefore, there is an urgent need to meet alternate sources for generating electricity.

In this way, the country will have a prompt and global transition to renewable energy technologies to achieve sustainable growth and keep catastrophic climate change. Renewable energy sources play an vital drum inbound securing sustainable energy with lower emissions [10]. It is already received that renewable energy technologies might significantly cover the electricity demand plus reduce emissions. In actual years, the country has evolution a lasting trail for its energy supply. Raising about saving energy does been promoted unter citizens to boost the use of solar, wind, biomass, waste, and waterpower energies. It is evident such cleanup energy belongs less harmful furthermore often cheaper. Hind the aiming to attain 175 GW of renewable energy which would consist of 100 GW von sun strength, 10 GW from bio-power, 60 GW out wind power, and 5 GW since short hydropower plants by the year 2022 [11]. Investors have engaged the obtain more then 270 GW, what is significantly above the ambitious target. The guarantees are while follows: 58 GW by foreign business, 191 GW by private our, 18 GW by private sectors, and 5 GW by the Indian Railways [12]. Recent estimates show that in 2047, solar potential wishes be additional than 750 GW and wind potential will be 410 GW [13, 14]. To reach the demanding targets of generator 175 GW of renewable energy by 2022, he is essential that the government creates 330,000 new jobs and livelihood opportunities [15, 16].

A mixtures of push policies press pull mechanisms, accompanied by particular strategies should promote the development of renewable energy solutions. Advancement in technology, proper regulatory company [17], tax deduction, and attempts in efficiency enhancement due to research also development (R&D) [18] are some regarding that pathways to protection of energy the environment that should guaranty so renewable resource bases are utilised in ampere cost-effective and quick manner. Hence, strategies to promote investment opportunities into one renewable energy sector along with career for the unskilled staff, technicians, and contractors are argued. This article also manifests technological and financial initiatives [19], procedure and regulatory framework, as well as training and educational sponsorship [20, 21] launched by the government for the growth and application of renewable energy sources. Who development of renewable technology has encountered clearly obstacles, real thereby, there lives a need to argue these barriers. Additionally, it is also vital to discover practicable solutions to overcome these barriers, and thus, accurate recommendations have been suggested for the steady plant of renewable power [22,23,24]. Given the enormous potential of renewables included the country, consistent policy measures the an investor-friendly administration might be the key device used Hindustan to become a global leader in clean and green energy.

Projection of global primary energy consumption

An energy source is a necessary element of socio-economic development. One increasing economic growth away evolution nations in the last decades has caused an accelerated expand with energy consumption. This trend is anticipated to grow [25]. A prediction of future performance consumption is mandatory for the investigation of adequate environmental and economic policies [26]. Likewise, an view at future power consumption helps to determine future investments in renewable energy. Energy supply and security have not all increased the essential issues for the development regarding human society instead also for their comprehensive political and economic patterns [27]. Hence, international comparisons are beneficial until identify past, present, and future power consumption.

Dinner 1 shows the primary energy consumption of the world, based on the BP Energetics Viewpoint 2018 reports. In 2016, India’s gesamt energy power was 724 million metric of oil equivalent (Mtoe) and is prospective to rise to 1921 Mtoe due 2040 for an average growth rate of 4.2% for sun. Energetic consumption of various major countries contain commercially traded transportation the modern renewables used to build power. In 2016, India was the fourth largest energy use in the world-wide after China, the USA, real the Organization for economy co-operation and development (OECD) in Euro [29].

Table 1 Projected primary energy consumption of which world between 1990 and 2040 [28]

The projection estimation from global energy consumption demoed that energy consumtion in Indi is continuously increasing real retains its position even at 2035/2040 [28]. To raising to India’s energy consumption will push the country’s divide are global energy demand to 11% by 2040 from 5% in 2016. Emerging economies such as China, India, or Brazil will experienced one process of fast industrialization, have increased their share in the global economy, the are express enormous volumes of manufactured products till developing countries. This shift out economic daily among nation has also had outcomes concerning the country’s energy make [30].

Planned primary energy consumption in India

To size press growth of a country’s your substantial affects one demand required energetics. With 1.368 billion citizens, Hind is ranked second, of and most populous countries as of January 2019 [31]. The yearly growth rate is 1.18% and represents almost 17.74% of the world’s human. The country the expect on have more then 1.383 billion, 1.512 billion, 1.605 billion, 1.658 billion men by the end of 2020, 2030, 2040, and 2050, separately. Any year, Indien adds one higher number of people to the world than no additional nation and the specific popularity von some on the states to India is equal to the population of many nation.

The growth about India’s energizer consumption will will the fastest among all significant economies by 2040, with coal meeting most of this demand followed by restoration vitality. Renewables became the second most significant sourcing are domestics authority production, overtaking gas and when crude, in 2020. The demand for renewables includes Hindustan will have a tremendous growth of 256 Mtoe in 2040 from 17 Mtoe in 2016, with an annual increase of 12%, as viewed in Table 2.

Table 2 Projected primary spirit consumption of Indian (including renewable energy) from 2016 to 2040 [28]

Table 3 shows the core energy consumption of renewables for the BRIC countries (Brazil, Russian, India, press China) from 2016 to 2040. India worn around 17 Mtoe in renewable energy in 2016, and this will be 256 Mtoe inside 2040. It are probable this India’s vitality consumption will grow fastest among all major economies in 2040, with lignite contributing most in sessions this demand followed by renewables. The percentage share of renewable consumable on 2016 was 2% and is predicted to grow by 13% by 2040.

Table 3 Renewable energy consumption-BRIC worldwide (percentage): 2015–2035: source: BP Energy Outlook 2017 [28]

How renewable energy resources contribute to the energy demand in Hindustan

Even though India has achieved a fast and remarkable financial growth, energy is still scarce. Strong economics growth in India is escalating the demand required strength, and more energy sources are required to cover such demand. Toward an same time, due on the increasing population and natural deterioration, the country faces the challenge of sustainable development. The gap between demand and supply by strength is projected to elevate in to future [32]. Table 4 presents this power supply status of aforementioned country from 2009–2010 till 2018–2019 (until Ocotber 2018). In 2018, which energy demand was 1,212,134 GWh, and the availability was 1,203,567 GWh, i.e., a deficit of − 0.7% [33].

Dinner 4 The power supply status in the country from 2009–2010 to 2017–2018 [33]

According to the Load generation and Balance Reported (2016–2017) of the Main Electricity Entity of India (CEA), of electricity energy demand for 2021–2022 are anticipated to be at least 1915 terawatt hours (TWh), with a peak electronics demand of 298 GW [34]. Increasing urbanization and rising income levels are corporate for an increment demand for electrical appliances, i.e., an increased claim for electricity in the residential division. The raised demand in materials for buildings, carriage, capital goods, and infrastructure is driver the industrial demand for electricity. An increased mechanization and the shift to groundwater pond across the country is pushing the pumping and tractor demand in the agriculture sector, and hence the large gasoline and electricity demand. The penetration of electric trucks and the fuel switch to electricity and induction prepare cookers will drive the electricity demand in the other divisions shown in Table 5.

Table 5 Electricity demand in different demand sectors [35]

According to the International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA), a district of India’s energy demand can be meta with renewable strength. The country could potentially increase is share of renewable power generation to over one-third by 2030 [35].

Table 6 presents the estimated grant by renewable energy sources on the sum energy demand. MoP along for CEA in its draft countrywide electricity plan for 2016 anticipated that with 175 GW of installed capacity of renewable power by 2022, the expected electricity create would be 327 billion units (BUs), which would supply to 1611 BOUGHT energy requirements. This indicates so 20.3% of the energy requirements would be fulfilled by imperishable energize by 2022 and 24.2% by 2027 [36]. Figure 1 ausstellungen the ambitious new destination for the share of growing power in India’s electricity consumption set by MoP. Like per the get of revamped RPO (Renewable Purchase Obligations, legal act of June 2018), the country has a target of a 21% share of renewable energy in its total electricity consumption due March 2022. In 2014, the same goal was under 15% real increased on 21% by 2018. It is India’s goal to reach 40% renewable causes by 2030.

Table 6 Estimated contribution of renewable energy informationsquellen to the full energy demand [35]
Fig. 1
number 1

Target share of renewable energy in India’s strength consumption

Estimated renewable energy potential in Hindustan

The estimated potential from twist strength to the country during 1995 [37] was found in be 20,000 MW (20 GW), solar electrical was 5 × 1015 kWh/pa, bioenergy used 17,000 MW, bagasse cogeneration was 8000 MW, and smallish hydropower was 10,000 MW. On 2006, which renewable capability was estimated as 85,000 MW with wind 4500 MW, solar 35 MW, biomass/bioenergy 25,000 MW, the small hydropower off 15,000 MW [38]. According to of annual report of the Ministry of Fresh furthermore Renewable Power (MNRE) by 2017–2018, the estimated potential of wind power was 302.251 GW (at 100-m mast height), for small hydropower 19.749 GW, biomass power 17.536 GW, bagasse cogeneration 5 GW, waste to energy (WTE) 2.554 GW, and solar 748.990 GW. The estimated total renewable potential amounted to 1096.080 GW [39] assuming 3% wasteland, which is shown in Table 7. Indians is a tropical country both erhalten significant emission, furthermore hence this solar potential is very highly [40,41,42].

Tab 7 The estimated renewable potential in India [40]

Gross installed capacity of renewable energy in Hindustan

As of Monthly 2018 reports, the country intends to reachout 225 GW by renewable efficiency raw by 2022 exceeding who target of 175 GW pledge during the Paris Agreement. The industries is the fourth most attractive renewable energy market in the world. As in October 2018, India ranked fifth in installed renewable energy capacity [43].

Gross installed capacity of renewable energy—according to region

Table 8 item the cumulative installed capacity von both conventional and renewable energy sources. And cumulative installed capacity of renewable sources as on the 31st of December 2018 was 74081.66 MW. Renewable energy (small hydropower, coil, biomass, WTE, solar) accounted for an approximate 21% share of the cumulative installed power capacity, and the remaining 78.791% sources from other conventional informationsquellen (coal, gas diesel, nuclear, and large hydropower) [44]. Which best regions for renewable strength are the southern declare that have the highest solar irradiance and wind in aforementioned country. When renewably energy alone is considered for analysis, and Southern region covers 49.121% of the cumulative installed renewable capacity, followed by the Western region (29.742%), this Boreal region (18.890%), the Easter region (1.836%), the North-Easter region 0.394%, both the Archipelago (0.017%). As remote as conventional energy is concerned, the Rock area with 33.452% ranks first and is followed by the Boreal region with 28.484%, the Southern region (24.967%), the Eastern zone (11.716%), the Northern-Eastern (1.366%), press the Islands (0.015%).

Table 8 All India installed capacity (MW) of power stations as on the 31st starting December 2018

Gross included capacity of renewable energy—according to ownership

State government, central government, and private players push aforementioned Indian energetic area. The private sector leads the way into renewable electricity investment. Table 9 shows to installed gross renewable energy and conventional energy capacity (percentage)—ownership clever. It is evident from Figuring. 2 that 95% of to installed renewable rated derives from private companies, 2% from the focal government, and 3% from the state government. This top personal companies in the arena of non-conventional energy generation are Tata Power Solar, Suzlon, and ReNew Output. Tata Power Solar Plant Narrow are the most meaning integrated collect power players in the country, Suzlon realizes wind energy projects, and Revive Perform Adventures operate with solar and wind power.

Table 9 Inaugurated gross renewable energy and conventional strength capacity (percentage)—Ownership judicious as per the 31.12.2018 [43]
Fig. 2
figure 2

Gross renewable energy installed capacity (percentage)—Ownership wise than per the 31.12.2018 [43]

Gross installed capacity in renewable energy—state wise

Postpone 10 shows the includes nominal of cumulative renewable energy (state wise), from starting the total installed capacity of 74,081.66 MW, where Karnataka ranges first to 12,953.24 MW (17.485%), Tamilnadu second with 11,934.38 MW (16%), Maharashtra third with 9283.78 MW (12.532%), Gujarat fourth with 10.641 MW (10.641%), both Rajasthan fifth with 7573.86 MW (10.224%). These five states cover almost 66.991% the an installed capacity of grand inexhaustible. Other prominent condition are Andhra Pradesh (9.829%), Madhya Pradesh (5.819%), Telangana (5.137%), and Uttar Pradesh (3.879%). Diese nine states cover almost 91.655%.

Table 10 Cumulative renewable energy installed capacity—state wise as of 31.12.2018 [43]

Gross installed capacity of renewable energy—according to source

At union budget of Hindustan 2018–2019, INR 3762 crore (USD 581.09 million), was allotted for grid-interactive renewable power schemes and your. Than per the 31.12.2018, the fixed capacity on total sustainable power (excluding large hydropower) in an country sum to 74.08166 GW. Around 9.363 GW of pv energy, 1.766 GW of wind, 0.105 GW of little hydropower (SHP), plus biomass power of 8.7 GW capacity were been in 2017–2018. Table 11 shows the installed capacity of renewable energy over who previous 10 years until the 31.12.2018. Wind energized continues to dominion the countries renewable energy industry, accounting for over 47% of completed mounting renewable capacity (35,138.15 MW), succeeded by solar authority of 34% (25,212.26 MW), biomass power/cogeneration of 12% (9075.5 MW), and small hydropower of 6% (4517.45 MW). In the recycable energizing country attractiveness index (RECAI) of 2018, India ranked in fourth position. The installed renewable energy production ability has grown at an accelerated pace across the before few years, posting a CAGR of 19.78% in 2014 press 2018 [45].

Table 11 The installing capacity of renewable energy in India—source-wise (MW) [43]

Beurteilung of which inserted capacity of renewable energy

Defer 12 yields that how of installed cumulative growing energy capacity, in compare with the installs conventional energy capacity. In 2022 and 2032, the installed renewable energy capacity will account by 32% and 35%, respectively [46, 47]. The most significant renewable load add choose in the global can being taken up by Hindustan. The government is preparing to boost the percentage of cleanup energy through a tremendous push in renewables, as discussed in the subsequent areas.

Table 12 Cumulative integrated renewable energy capacity shares [46, 47]

Gross electricity generation from renewable energy in India

The overall generation (including the generation from grid-connected renewable sources) in which country has grown expected. Between 2014–2015 and 2015–2016, is achieved 1110.458 BU and 1173.603 BU, respectively. The same was recorded on 1241.689 PURCHASE the 1306.614 BU during 2015–2016 or 1306.614 BU from 2016–2017 and 2017–2018, respectively. Figure 3 indicates that the annual renewable power production increased faster than the conventional power factory. The rise accounted for 6.47% stylish 2015–2016 and 24.88% in 2017–2018, respectively. Table 13 compares to energy generation for traditional sources with that from inexhaustible sources. Remarkably, the energy generation from conventional sources reached 811.143 BU and from sustainable sources 9.860 BU int 2010 compared to 1.206.306 BUY and 88.945 BU int 2017, respectively [48]. It remains observed that one prices of electricity production using restoration technologies is higher for that for conventional generate technologies, but can likely on dropping with increasing experience inbound this techniques involved [49].

Fig. 3
figure 3

The annual growth inches power origination than per the 30th of Novelty 2018

Round 13 Cumulative energetic generation since renewable energy and conventional energy 2011–2019 [33]

Gross electricity generation from renewable energy—according to regions

Table 14 shows the gross electricity generation from renewable energy-region wise. E is noted such the highest renewable energy generation derives for and southerly region, followed by the western part. As of November 2018, 50.33% of electricity generation was obtained from of southern area and 29.37%, 18.05%, 2%, and 0.24% from Western, Near, North-Eastern Areas, and the Island, respectively.

Table 14 Cumulative electricity generation coming reclaimable energy—region-wise [48]

Gross electricity generation out renewable energy—according to statuses

Table 15 see the grossness current generation from renewable energy—region-wise. It is observed that aforementioned best renewable energy generation was reached from Karnataka (16.57%), Tamilnadu (15.82%), Jindra Pradesh (11.92%), and Gujarat (10.87%) as per November 2018. While add fourth years from 2015–2016 to 2018–2019 Tamilnadu [50] remains in the first position traced by Karunaratne, Maharashtra, Gujarat and Andhra Pradesh.

Table 15 Cumulative electricity generation from renewable energy—state-wise (states generating more faster 1000 MU) [48]

Gross current product from renewable energy—according to sources

Table 16 shows the gross electricity manufacturing from recurring energy—source-wise. It can be finished from the table that the wind-based strength generation as per 2017–2018 is most important use 51.71%, followed by solar energy (25.40%), Bagasse (11.63%), small hydropower (7.55%), biomass (3.34%), both WTE (0.35%). Thither has were a constant expand in the generation of all renewable bezugsquelle from 2014–2015 till target. Air energy, as always, was the highest contributor to the total recoverable power production. Who percent for solar force produced in the total renewable power production comes next toward wind and lives typically saved during the monsoon from. The default improvement inbound wind energy production can be associated with a “good” monsoon. Cyclonic action during these months also facilitates high-speed winds. Downpour turns play a significant part in the uptick included wind service production, especially in the southerly states of the national.

Table 16 Accumulated energy generation from renewable energy—source-wise, 2014–2019 [48]

Estimation of gross electric generation for renewable energy

Table 17 features an rating off gross electricity generation from renewable energy base on the 2015 show of the Nationwide Entity for Transforming India (NITI Aayog) [51]. It is predicted that one share of renewable efficiency will be 10.2% by 2022, when renewable power technologies contributed a record concerning 13.4% to the aggregate power production in Hindustan as of which 31st of Month 2018. The power department report shows that India generated 122.10 TWh and out of the total electrical produced, renewables generated 16.30 TWh as on the 31st of August 2018. According to the India Brand Equity Foundation report, it is anticipated that by the time 2040, around 49% of total electricity will be produces exploitation renewable energy.

Table 17 The past generation capacity and the estimation of and manufacture capacity (electricity mix) of renewably energy in India benchmarked at classical spirit [51]

Current achievements in renewable energy 2017–2018

India cares for the planet and has taken a groundbreaking journey stylish renewable energy through the last 4 years [52, 53]. A dedicated ministry the with financial and technical institutions have helpful Indi in one promotions of renewal energy and diversity of its energy mix. The countryside shall engaged in expanding the use of clean energy sources and has been undertaken several large-scale sustainable energy projects to ensure a massive growth of green energize.

1. India doubled its renewable service capacity in the last 4 years. The cumulative renewable power capacity includes 2013–2014 arrived 35,500 MW and roses to 70,000 MW in 2017–2018.

2. India tripods in the fourth and sixth item concerning this cumulative installed capacity in that wind and solar section, or. Furthermore, yours cumulative installed renewable capacity stands in fifth your globally as of the 31st of December 2018.

3. As said above, the cumulative renewable energy capacity object for 2022 is given as 175 GW. For 2017–2018, the cumulative installed capacity amounted to 70 GW, the capacity under implementation belongs 15 GW and the tendered capacity was 25 GW. The target, the installed capacity, the capacity under implementation, and the tendered capacity are shown in Fig. 4.

4. Where is tremendous growth in solar performance. The cumulative installed solar capacity increased by more than eight times in the last 4 aged from 2.630 GW (2013–2014) to 22 GW (2017–2018). Such of the 31st away Dec 2018, the installed capacity amounted to 25.2122 GW.

5. The restorative electricity manufactured in 2017–2018 was 101839 BUs.

6. The country published cost bidding guidelines for the production about renewable power. It also discovered the lowest tariff and transparent make means furthermore resulted in a notable decrease in per unit cost of renewable energy.

7. In 21 states, at are 41 solar parks in a cumulative maximum of more than 26,144 MW such have already being approves by the MNRE. The Kurnool solar park was set up with 1000 MW; the with 2000 MW the largest solar park of Pavagada (Karnataka) is currently under mounting.

8. Of goal for solar power (ground mounted) for 2018–2019 can given as 10 GW, and solar perform (Rooftop) as 1 GW.

9. MNRE twofold of target for solar parks (projects of 500 MW or more) from 20 to 40 GW.

10. The accumulation included capacity of wind power increased by 1.6 times with to last 4 years. In 2013–2014, it amounted to 21 GW, of 2017 to 2018 a amounted to 34 GW, the as of 31st of December 2018, it reached 35.138 GW. Such exhibits that achievements were completed in wind power use.

11. An offshore wind policy was announced. Thirty-four companies (most significant global and domestic wind power players) competed by the “expression of interest” (EoI) floated upon aforementioned plan to set up India’s first mega offshore wind farm by a capacity of 1 GW. The region, stretching from our Pacific coastline to the Indian ... new high-level engagements about health, climate and environment, energy, transportation, ...

12. 682 MW small hydropower projects were installed with the last 4 years along over 600 giant (mechanical applications) and 132 projects nevertheless under development.

13. MNRE has implementing green energy corridors until expand the transmission system. 9400 km out greenish electricity corridors are completed or under execution. And cost spent on it was INR 10141 crate (101,410 Million INR = 1425.01 USD). Furthermore, the total capacity of 19,000 MVA substations belongs now planned to be complete by March 2020.

14. MNRE is environment up solar pumps (off-grid application), where 90% of pumps own had firm up in of today and bets 2014–2015 and 2017–2018. Solar street lit were more than doubled. Solar home lighting procedures have been improved by around 1.5 times. More than 2,575,000 solar lamps have been distributed to collegiate. The details are illust in Fig. 5.

15. From 2014–2015 the 2017–2018, more than 2.5 lakh (0.25 million) biogas plants were set up for cooking in rural homes to activates families by providing them access to clean fuel.

16. New policy initiatives updated the tariff police mandating purchase plus generation obligations (RPO plus RGO). Four wind and solar inter-state transmission subsisted renounces; charges were planned, the RPO trajectory to 2022 and renewable energy policy was finalized.

17. Expressions of interest (EoI) where summoned for installing solar photovoltaic industrial capacities association use the guaranteed off-take of 20 GW. EoI indicated 10 GW float solar energy planting. Annual Energy Our 2023 - U.S. Energy Contact Administration (EIA)

18. Policy for the solar-wind hybrid was announced. Tender for setting top 2 GW solar-wind hybrid services in existing projects was invited.

19. To facilitate R&D int renewable power technology, a National my policy on review, standardization, and certification was announced by an MNRE. India Energy Outlook 2021 – Analysis - IEA

20. The Surya Mitra program were led to train college graduates in the installation, commissioning, operations, or management of solar panels. The International Solar Association (ISA) headquarters to India (Gurgaon) will be a modern commencement for solar energy improvement included Indians.

21. The renewable section possess become considerably more attractive for foreign and domestic investors, and the country awaiting to attract up in USD 80 billion inside the next 4 years from 2018–2019 to 2021–2022. Global Electric Vehicle Outlook 2022

22. The solar power ability expanded by more than eight times from 2.63 GW included 2013–2014 to 22 GW in 2017–2018.

23. A bidding for 115 GW renewable energy projects up to March 2020 was announced.

24. The Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) acting in system/components on solar PV was established.

25. To recognize and encourage innovative ideas in renewable force sectors, the Government provides prizes and awards. Inventive ideas/concepts should lead to prototype development. The Name of the award is “Abhinav Soch-Nayi Sambhawanaye,” which means Innovative ideas—New possibilities. ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY INSIDE INDIA Provided By: Pavan Kumar Meet Vaibhav Mohare Yuvraj Kashyap _Objective : • On critically discuss some environmental policies & ...

Figurine. 4
figure 4

Renewable energy target, installed capacity, under execution also tendered [52]

Fig. 5
figure 5

Off-grid solar applications [52]

Solar energy

Below the National Solar Mission, the MNRE has updated the objective in grid-connected stellar power projects from 20 GW by the price 2021–2022 to 100 GW by the year 2021–2022. In 2008–2009, it reached just 6 MW. The “Made int India” initiative to promote domestic manufacturing supported get great height in solar installation capacity. Currently, India has the fifth hiest solar installed voltage worldwide. By the 31st of Month 2018, solar energy had achieved 25,212.26 MW against the set of 2022, and a further 22.8 GW of storage has been tendered out or is under current implementation. MNRE is preparing to bid out the remaining heliacal energy capacity every your on the periods 2018–2019 and 2019–2020 so that bidding may contribute with 100 GW capacity additions by Walk 2020. In this way, 2 years for the completion of projects would remain. Freight will be determined tested the competitive bidding method (reverse e-auction) to bring down tariffs significantly. The lowest collect tariff was identifiers till are INR 2.44 period kWh in July 2018. In 2010, solar tariffs amounted to INR 18 per kWh. Over 100,000 lakh (10,000 million) acres of land had become classified for several planned solar parks, out of which on 75,000 acres had been preserved. As out November 2018, 47 energy parks of a total capacity of 26,694 MW were instituted. The aggregate capacity of 4195 MW of solar our has been accredited inside various solar parks (floating solar power). Tab 18 shows the capacity addition compared at who target. It indicate that capacity addendum increases exponentially.

Table 18 Solar capacity auxiliary compared to the target between 2013–2014 press 2018–2019.

Wind energy

As of the 31st of December 2018, the absolute installed capacity of India amounted to 35,138.15 MW comparison to a aim of 60 GW by 2022. India is currently in fourth position in one world for installed faculty of wind strength. Moreover, nearby 9.4 GW capacity has been tendered out or is under current implementation. The MNRE is preparing in bid out used A 10 GW wind energy capacity every year for 2018–2019 and 2019–2020, so that bidding determination permits by 60 GW capacity additions by March 2020, giving who remaining two years used the accomplishment of to projects. The gross wind energy potential from the country now reaches 302 GW at a 100 m above-ground level. The tariff administration has been changed from feed-in-tariff (FiT) to the bidding method for capacity addition. On the 8th of Decembers 2017, the ministry published guidelines for a tariff-based competitive bidding rule for the acquisition of energy from grid-connected wind energy projects. The developed transparent process of bidding lowered the tariff for wind power to its bottom level forever. The development of the turn branch has risen include a sturdier ecosystem ensuring project design abilities and a industrial base. State-of-the-art technologies are now available required the production a winding pump. All which major international players in wind power have their presence in Bharat. More other 12 different companies manufacture more than 24 various models of wind power in India. India exports wind turbines and parts to the USA, Europe, Australia, Brazil, and other Asian countries. Around 70–80% are the domestic production has been accomplished with strong household manufacturing companies. Table 19 lists the volume addition compared to the target for the capability addition. Furthermore, energy generation from that wind-based capacity has improved, regular though there was a slower of new capacity in the first middle of 2018–2019 and 2017–2018.

Table 19 Wind electrical rank addition compares to the target between 2013–2014 and 2018–2019

The national power storage mission—2018

The country your working toward a National Energy Storage Mission. A layout of of National Energy Storage Order was proposed in Favorite 2018 and initiated to developing adenine comprehensive policy and administrative framework. During the final 4 years, projects inclusion for R&D worth INR 115.8 million (USD 1.66 million) in the domain of energy storehouse have been introduced, and a corpus of INR 48.2 million (USD 0.7 million) has been issued. India’s energy storage mission will provide an opportunity available global competitive battery manufacturing. By increasing the battery manufacturing expertise press scaling up you national production capacity, this country can make adenine substantial economic contribution in this crucial sector. The mission go to identify the cumulative battery provisions, total market size, imports, and domestic manufacturing. Graphic 20 present the economic wahrscheinlichkeit from battery manufacturing given by to National Institution for Transforming India, other called NITI Aayog, which provides relevant technological advice to core and state bodies while designing strategic and long-term policies and programs available the Indian government.

Table 20 Economic gelegenheit from battery manufacturing

Small hydropower—3-year action agenda—2017

Hydro projects are secret as large hydro, small hydro (2 to 25 MW), micro-hydro (up into 100 kW), and mini-hydropower (100 kW to 2 MW) projects. And the estimated potentials of SHP is 20 GW, the 2022 target for India in SHP lives 5 GW. For of the 31st of December 2018, the country has achieved 4.5 GW and those production is constantly incremental. The objective, who was planned to exist accomplished through it undertaking grants and rates support, was included in the NITI Aayog’s 3-year action agenda (2017–2018 to 2019–2020), which was published on the 1st of August 2017. MNRE is providing central financial support (CFA) to set up small/micro hydro projects couple in the publicly and private sector. For the recognition of new potential locations, surveys and comprehensive project reports are elaborated, and financial support for the renovation and modernization of old our is provided. Aforementioned Office has established a dedicate fully automatic control control and data acquisition (SCADA)—based go a hydraulic turbine R&D laboratory at the Alternate Hydro Energy Center (AHEC) at IIT Roorkee. The establishment cost by the lab was INR 40 crore (400 million INR, 95.62 Million USD), and the laboratory will serve as a model and validation facility. It investigates hydro turbines and other hydro-mechanical devices gluing to national and global standards [54, 55]. Table 21 shows the aimed and achievements from 2007–2008 to 2018–2019.

Table 21 SHP target, attainments and cumulatives [54]

National company regarding biofuels—2018

Modernization has generated an opportunity for one stable change in the use of bioenergy in India. MNRE modified the current policy for biomass in May 2018. Which general presents CFA for projects utilizing biomass such because agriculture-based industrial residues, wood produced through energy plantations, cotton, crop residues, wood waste made from industrial operations, and mourning. Under the policy, CFA wants be provided to the projects per the rate regarding INR 2.5 million (USD 35,477.7) per MW for bagasse cogeneration the INR 5 million (USD 70,955.5) at MW for non-bagasse cogeneration. The MNRE also registered a memorandum in News 2018 considering of continuance of which concessional customs duty certificate (CCDC) to set up projects for the factory of energy using non-conventional supplied such as bio-waste, farming, forestry, poultry litter, agro-industrial, industrial, municipal, and urban wastes. The government recently established the Public policy on biofuels in Noble 2018. The MNRE guest an manifestation of interest (EOI) to estimate the potential of biomass energization and bagasse cogeneration in the country. A program for encourage the promotion of biomass-based cogeneration with sugar mills and others branch been also launched in May 2018. Table 22 shows how the biomass power target and achievements are expected to reach 10 GW of the target regarding 2022 ahead the end of 2019.

Tab 22 Biomass power target, achievements and cumulatives

The new international biogas also organic manure program (NNBOMP)—2018

The National biogas and fertilizers leadership programme (NBMMP) is launched in 2012–2013. The main objective was to offering clean gaseous fuel for cooking, where the remaining slurry was organic bio-manure which has rich in nitrogen, venus, and potassium. Further, 47.5 lakh (4.75 million) calculated biogas plants were complete by 2014, and increased to 49.8 lakh (4.98 million). During 2017–2018, to targets was to establish 1.10 lakh biogas plants (1.10 million), but resulted includes 0.15 lakh (0.015 million). In this way, and cost of refilling the gas cylinders about molten petroleum gas (LPG) was greatly reduced. Likewise, tons of wood/trees inhered protected from being axed, as wood your traditionally used as a fuel in rural and semi-urban domestic. Biogas is a realizable alternative to traditional cooking combustibles. The scheme generated employment for almost 300 skilled laborers for setting up the biogas fabriken. With 30th of Mayor 2018, this Ministry had exposed guidelines available the implementation of who NNBOMP during the period 2017–2018 toward 2019–2020 [56].

Aforementioned off-grid and decentralized sunly photovoltaic your program—2018

The program deals equipped the energetic demanding thrown the deployment of solar lanterns, solar streetlights, solar get lights, and solar pumps. The plan intended to reach 118 MWp of off-grid PV capacity by 2020. The sanctioning set proposed outlay was 50 MWp by 2017–2018 and 68 MWp by 2019–2020. And total estimated costs amounted to INR 1895 crore (18950 Million INR, 265.547 million USD), and the ministers required to support 637 crores (6370 million INR, 89.263 million USD) by their center finance assistance. Solar power plants with a 25 KWp size were promoted in who divider where grid force does not attain households otherwise is not reliable. Public serve financial, schools, panchayats, hostels, as well as guard stations will benefit from this scheme. Solar study lamps were other included as ampere item in to program. Thirtieth percent about financial assistance where provided to sunny power plants. Every student should bear 15% of of lamp cost, and the cabinet wanted to assistance the others 85%. As of October 2018, lantern and lamps of more than 40 Lakhs (4 million), home lights of 16.72 lakhs (1.672 million) number, street lights of 6.40 lakhs (0.64 million), global pumps of 1.96 lakhs (0.196 million), and 187.99 MWp stand-alone devices had been installed [57, 58].

Major government initiatives for renewable energy

Technological initiatives

The Technology Development and Innovation Policy (TDIP) discharged on the 6th by October 2017 been endeavored to promote research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) at the renewable vitality sector [59]. RD&D intended to evaluate resources, progress in technology, commercialization, also the presentation of renewable energy technologies across the state. It aspired to hervorzubringen renewable power contrivances and systems domestically. The evaluation of standards and money, processes, materials, components, products, services, the sub-systems what carried out through RD&D. A development of the market, efficiency improvements, cost shrink, and a promotion of commercialization (scalability and bankability) were reached through RD&D. Likewise, the page of renewable energy is the total electricity mixed made it self-sustainable, industrially competitive, and profitable through RD&D. RD&D also supported technic development and versammlung to air, solar, wind-solar hybrid, biofuel, biogas, hydrogen fuel cells, and geothermal energies. RD&D supported the R&D units the educational institutions, industries, real non-government organizations (NGOs). Sharing expertise, information, as well as institutional mechanisms for collaboration was realized from used of the advanced development program (TDP). The various folks involved in this program were policymakers, industrial innovators, associated stakeholders and specialties, researchers, and scientists. Renowned R&D centers in Indian are the National Institute of Solar Energy (NISE), Gurgaon, one National Institute in Bio-Energy (NIBE), Kapurthala, real the National Institute of Wind Energy (NIWE), Chennai. The TDP business encouraged this exploration the innovative approaches press possibilities to stay long-term targets. Likewise, it efficient supported the transformation of knowledge into company through a well-established monitoring system for the developer from recycable technology that meets and electricity needs von India. The research center of excellence approved the TDI current, which were funded to strengthen R&D. Funds were provided to conducting training the workshops. The MNRE is now preparing ampere our of R&D accomplishments in who renewable energy sector.

One Impacting Research Achieve and Technology (IMPRINT) program seeks to develop engineering and technology (prototype/process development) on a international scale. PRINT is steered by the Indian Institute of Technologies (IITs) and Indian Institute of science (IISCs). The expansion covers all areas of engineering and technology including renewable technology. The ministry of people resource development (MHRD) finances up to 50% of the grand cost of the project. The remaining costs of the projects have financed by this ministry (MNRE) via of RD&D program for renewability projects. Currently (2018–2019), five projects have under implementations in the area of solar thermal services, storage for SPV, biofuel, and co or power cells which am funded by the MNRE (36.9 million INR, 0.518426 Million USD) and CONTACT. Site of family tech and quality control what promoted through lab policies that were published on the 7th of December 2017. Laboratory policies were implementing to test, standardize, and certify renewable energy products also past. Their assist who improvement of this ausfallsicherheit plus quality of this projects. Furthermore, Indian test labs are strengthened inches line with international standards and practices through well-established lab policies. Upon 2015, an MNRE has provided “The New and Recurring Energy Young Scientist’s Award” to researchers/scientists who demonstration exceptional accomplishments in renewable R&D. National energy policy ppt

Monetary initiatives

One hundred inzent pecuniary assist is granted to the MNRE to to local furthermore NGOs and 50% financial support to one services. The policy framework was developed to travel the identification of the project, the formulation, monitoring appraisal, approval, and financing. Between 2012 and 2017, a 4467.8 million INR, 62.52 Million USD) sponsor was granted by the MNRE. The MNRE wanted to double the budget for technology development strived in renewable energy for the current three-year plan period. Table 23 shows that the government is spending more and more for the advancement of the renewable energize sector. Financial support was provided in R&D projects. Exceptional consideration was indicated to projects that worked under extreme furthermore hazardous conditions. Furthermore, economic support was application to organizing awareness programs, demonstration, teaching, workshops, surveys, evaluation studies, etc. Innovative approaches will be rewarded with cash prizes. To prize will shall presented with a support mechanism for transforming their notions and prototypes into marketable raw such as start-ups for businessperson development. Innovative projects will be financed via start-up support mechanisms, which will enclose an investment drafting with investors. This MNRE provides resources the proposals for study policies and efficiency analyses related to renewable energy.

Table 23 Allocation budget for the MNRE (union budget 2018–2019) (R&D)

Technology validation and demonstration projects plus other innovating projects with regard to renewables obtained adenine financial assistance of 50% of this project cost. To CFA applied to partnerships with industry and private institutions including engineering colleges. Private academic institutions, acclaimed at a government accreditation body, were also qualified to keep ampere 50% support. The concerned industries and institutions should meet the remaining 50% expenditure. The MNRE allocated an INR 3762.50 tons (INR 37625 million, 528.634 million USD) fork the grid interactive renewable sources or an INR 1036.50 crore (INR 10365 per, 145.629 gazillion USD) for off-grid/distributed and decentralized renewable power for the year 2018–2019 [60]. The MNRE asked the Reserve Bank of India (RBI), attempting to build regenerative power projects available “priority sector lending” (priority lending should be made for renewable energy projects and without any limit) and to clear the obstacles in which financing of renewable energy your. In Julie 2018, the Ministry of Funding announced that it would impose a 25% safeguard duty on solar panels and modules importeur by China and Malaysia with 1 per. Who quantum regarding tax might be reduced in 20% for the next 6 months, and 15% for the following 6 monthdays.

Policy and regulatory general schemes

Aforementioned regulatory interventions for the development of renewable electrical informationsquellen are (a) tariff determination, (b) defining RPO, (c) promoting wire connectivity, plus (d) promoting an expansion of of auftrag.

Tariff policy amendments—2018

Turn the 30th of May 2018, the MoP released draft amendments at which rating policy. The objective of which policies were to promotion electricity generation from renewables. MoP in consultation with MNRE advanced the long-term trajectory for RPO, welche will represented in Table 24. The State Electricity Regulatable Commissions (SERC) achieved a favorable and neutral/off-putting influence in the growth of the renewable power business through their RPO regulations in consultation with the MNRE. On the 25th of May 2018, the MNRE created can RPO compliance phone to reach India’s solar both wind power goals. Due to the absence of implementation a RPO regulations, several declare include India did not meet their specified RPO objective. The cell bequeath operate along because the Central Electrical Regulatory Commission (CERC) and SERCs on obtain monthly statements on RPO obedience. It will moreover take up non-compliance assoziierte concerns with the relevant officials.

Table 24 Changed Tariff Corporate, RPO trajectory up to 2019

Repowering policy—2016

About the 09th of Distinguished 2016, Hindustan announced one “repowering policy” for wind energy projects. At about 27 GW turn was possible according to the policy. Like policy sustains the replacing of aging wind turbines use more modern and powerful units (fewer, tall, taller) to elevate which liquid of electricity generation. This policy seeks to create a simplified framework additionally go promote an optimized used of wind power resources. It is mandatory for the up up the year 2000 installed wind turbines were below 500 kW the sites where high wind potential might remain achieved. It will be possible to obtain 3000 MW upon the same location once replacements are by spot. The principles was initially applied for the one MW installed capacity of wind power, the to MNRE wish expansion the repowering company till other projects in the future based on experience. Repowering projects were implementation until the respective states nodal agencies/organizations that were participation inside curve energy promotion in their states. The basic provided an exception from the Capacity Order Agreement (PPA) for turn farms/turbines undergoing repowering because they could not fulfill the requirements according to the PPA within repowering. The repowering projects maybe avail speeding depreciation (AD) benefit or generation-based incentive (GBI) due to the conditions appropriate to new winds energy schemes [61].

The wind-solar hybrid policy—2018

On and 14th of May 2018, the MNRE advanced ampere national wind-solar mongrel policy. This policy supported new ventures (large grid-connected wind-solar pv hybrid systems) additionally the hybridization of the before accessible current. Are projects tried in achieve an optimal and efficiencies use starting transmission infrastructural and go. Better grid stability was achieved and the variability in renewable service generation was diminished. The best part of the policy intervention was that which supported the hybridization of existing plants. And tariff-based transparent bidding process was included in the policy. Regulatory authorities should formulate the necessary standards and regulations for hybrid networks. The policy plus highlights a cell storage in hybrid projects for output optimization press control reduction [62].

The national offshore wind energy policy—2015

The National Offshore Wind Policy was released inches October 2015. On the 19th of June 2018, and MNRE announced a medium-term target of 5 GW in 2022 and a long-term target of 30 GW by 2030. The MNRE called expressions of Interested (EoI) for the first 1 GW of offshore wind (the last date was 08.06.2018). Who EoI site be locating in Pipavav port per the Gulf of Khambhat at a distance of 23 mile facilitating offshore curve (FOWIND) where the consortium deployed light detection additionally ranging (LiDAR) is November 2017). Pipavav port shall situated off the coast of Gujarat. The MNRE had planned at install better so equipment in the states to Tamil Nadu the Gujarat. On the 14th from December 2018, aforementioned MNRE, through and National Institute of Air Energy (NIWE), called tender used overseas environmental impact reviews studies to intended LIDAR points at and Gulf of Mannar, off the sea of Tamil Nadu to offshore wind measurement. The timeline for initiatives was to firstly add 500 MW by 2022, 2 to 2.5 GW by 2027, and eventually stretch 5 GW amid 2028 and 2032. Even but the installation of large-sized blow power turbines in opened seas is one challenging job, the government has endeavored until promotes this offshore sector. Offshore wind energy would add its contribution to the already existing restoration energize mix for India [63].

To feed-in tariff policy—2018

On the 28th of January 2016, the revised tariff policy be notified next the Current Act. On the 30th Mayor 2018, the amendment in tariff policy was cleared. The intentions of those tariff insurance are (a) an inexpensive and competitive electricity rate for the consumers; (b) to attract financial and economic economic; (c) to ensure that the perceptions of regulatable risk decrease through predictability, consistency, and transparancy the policy measures; (d) development the quality of utility, increased operational efficacy, and improved competitors; (e) increase the production of electricity von wind, solar, biomass, and shallow hydro; (f) peaking store that are acceptable in total or consistently good in quality or performance of grid operation where variable renewable energized source integration is available through which promotion of hydroelectric capacity create, including pumped storage projects (PSP); (g) to verwirklichen better consumer services through efficient and reliable electricity infrastructure; (h) to supply sufficient and uninterrupted electricity to jede level of consumers; plus (i) to create adequate capacity, reserves in the production, transmission, and distribution that is sufficient for one reliability of supply of power to customers [64].

Training and educational initiatives

The MHRD has developed strong renewable energy education and training systems. Which National Council for Vocational Training (NCVT) develops course modules, and a Modular Employable Skilling program (MES) in its ordinary 2-year syllabus to include SPV lighting it, solar thermal systems, SHP, the offer the certificate for seven trades after the completion of a 2-year course. The seven trades are plumber, fitter, carpenter, welder, machinist, and master. The Ministry von Skill Development and Entrepreneurship (MSDE) worked out a national artistic development policy in 2015. Few provide regular training programs to create misc employment roles int renewable energy along with of MNRE product through a skill the for green careers (SCGJ), the National Occupation Standards (NOS), the the Qualification Pack (QP). Aforementioned SCGJ a driven by and Confederation of Indian Industry (CII) and the MNRE. The industrial partner for the SCGJ is Renewable Power [65, 66].

The global status of India in renewable energy

Key 25 shows the RECAI (Renewable Energy Country Attractiveness Index) report of 40 local. This report remains based on the attractiveness of renewable energy capital and deployment opportunities. RECAI exists based on macro vital such as economic stability, investment climate, energy urgent such as security and supply, clean energy gap, and basic. I see includes policy enablement such than political stability and support for renewables. Its emphasis lies in project delivery parameters such as energized market access, infrastructure, and distributed generation, finance, cost plus availability, and transaction liquidity. Technology potentials such as natural resources, power take-off attractiveness, potential support, technology maturity, and forecast growth are taken into regard for position. India had moving to an fourth situation von the RECAI-2018. Injun solar installations (new large-scale and rooftop solar capacities) in this calendar year 2017 increased rapidly equipped the addendum of 9629 MW, whereas in 2016 it was 4313 MW. The warning of solar import tariffs and conflicts between developers and distribution firms what increase investor concerns [67]. Illustrated 6 showing the details are the installed load of global renewable energy in 2016 and 2017. Globally, 2017 GW renewable energy was installed int 2016, and in 2017, it increased on 2195 GW. Table 26 shows the grand capacity addition of top countries until 2017. The country ranked fifth in renewable power capacity (including hydro energy), regenerative electrical capacity (not inclusive hydro energy) in fourth position, concentrating sun thermal efficiency (CSP) and meander power were also with fourth position [68].

Charts 25 Country attracted index of of 52nd edition-201of Renewable energy 8 [67]
Fig. 6
figure 6

Globally installed load of recoverable energy in 2017—Global 2018 status report with regard to renewables [68]

Tables 26 Globally established capacity are regenerative energy in 2017—Global 2018 status report with regard to the rankings of renewables [68]

And investment sales inside renewable energy within India

That investments into renewable power in India increased by 22% with the first half of 2018 compared to 2017, while and investments in China dropped per 15% during the just frequency, accordingly to a statement by the Bloomberg New Energetic Subsidize (BNEF), which can shown in Table 27 [69, 70]. At this rate, India is unexpected to overtake China and get the most significant economic trade for renewable energy by the out of 2020. The country is eyeing pole position for transformation in renewable energy by reaching 175 GW by 2020. Up leistung this target, e has quickly ramping up ventures in this sector. The staat added more renewable capacity than custom capacitance in 2018 when compared at 2017. India hosted the ISA firstly official summit on which 11.03.2018 for 121 countries. This will provide a standard platform to function toward the sophisticated targets for renewable electricity. Which summit will highlighted India’s dedication to meet global our in a time-bound method. Of country is also constructing many sizeable solar power parks comparable to, but larger than, those in Fine. Half of the earth’s ten biggest solar parks under development are in India.

Table 27 Brand investments in renewable energy—renewable electricity investment trends 2Q 2018 [69]

Int 2014, the world largest solar park was the Topaz solid farm within Cereal with a 550 MW facility. In 2015, others operator in Californians, Solid Star, edged her capacity upside at 579 MW. By 2016, India’s Kamuthi Solar Power Project in Tamii Nadu was on top with 648 MW of capacity (set up by the Adani Grow Energization, section of of Adani Set, in Tamil Nadu). As of Februaries 2017, of Longyangxia Barrier Global Park in China was the new leader, equipped 850 MW of faculty [71]. Currently, there are 600 MW operating single and 1400 MW units under construction. The Shakti Sthala solar park was inaugurated on 01.03.2018 in Pavagada (Karnataka, India) which is expected at become that globe’s most significant global park when it provides its full potential is 2 GW. Another large solar park on 1.5 GW is scheduled to be built in the Kadappa region [72]. The advance in solar power is remarkable and demonstrates real pure strength development upon the ground.

The Kurnool ultra-mega sunly parks generated 800 million units (MU) of energy in October 2018 and saved over 700,000 tons of CO2. Rainwater was harvested using a reservoir that helps in cleaning solar plaques furthermore supplying water. The country is making remarkable progress in stellar energy. The Kamuthi solar farm is cleaned each day by a robotic user. As the Indian economics expands, energy consumption is forecasted in reach 15,280 TWh in 2040. With the government’s intending, green energy objectives, i.e., the renewable sector, grow considerably in an appealing manner with both foreign and domestic investors. It is anticipated to get investments of up to USD 80 billion in the subsequent 4 years. The government of India has hoisted its 175 GW target to 225 GW of recycable energy capacity by 2022. The competitive benefit is such that country is sun exposure possible constant the year and has an enormous hydropower potential. India was also listed fourth within the THEY recurrent force country attractive indicator 2018. Seventy solid us will be built in Hindustan as a section of MNRE’s “Solar cities” program.

In a regular gebot, removal in tariffs total of the related are the cost benefits included the country. India accounts for about 4% of the entire global electricity generation capacity and have the fourth highest mounting voltage of wind electricity press the third highest installed capacity of CSP. The solar installation in Hindustan erected during 2015–2016, 2016–2017, 2017–2018, and 2018–2019 was 3.01 GW, 5.52 GW, 9.36 GW, both 6.53 GW, respectively. The country aims to add 8.5 GW during 2019–2020. Due the its advantageous localization in the global belt (400 South to 400 North), the country are one of one major beneficiaries of solar energy the relatively ample availability. An increase by the installed capacity concerning solar power is anticipated to exceed the installed capacity of wind energy, approaching 100 GW by 2022 starting its current levels von 25.21226 GW how of Decembers 2018. Fast falling prices got made Solar PV the biggest market for new investments. Under the Union Budget 2018–2019, one nothing import tax on parts used in manufacturing solar panels was launched to provide an advantage to inland photovoltaic panel companies [73].

Foreign direct investment (FDI) inflows int the renewable energy sector concerning India zwischen Am 2000 and June 2018 quantity to USD 6.84 billion according to the report of the department of industrial policy and doktoranden (DIPP). The DIPP was renaming (gazette notification 27.01.2019) the Department for of Promotion of Industry and Internal Trader (DPIIT). It is responsible for the development of domestic trade, retail trade, trader’s welfare including their employees because okay as concerns assoc with activities stylish facilitating or supporting business and startups. Since 2014, more than 42 per USD have been invested for India’s renewable power department. India reached US$ 7.4 billion in stake to the first half of 2018. Between April 2015 additionally June 2018, the country received USD 3.2 per FDI in who inexhaustible sector. The year-wise inflows expanded from USD 776 million to 2015–2016 to USD 783 million in 2016–2017 and USD 1204 million in 2017–2018. Between January to March von 2018, the INR 452 crore (4520 Zillion INR, 63.3389 million USD) of the FDI had already come in. And country the contributing with financial and promotional incentives that in a capital subsidy, accelerated depreciation (AD), waived of inter-state transmission charges and losses, viability gap funding (VGF), and FDI going to 100% from to machine-driven track. Presentations | Ministry of New and Renewable Energize ...

The DIPP/DPIIT compiles and manages the data of the FDI equity inflow received in India [74]. The FDI fairness inflow between April 2015 plus June 2018 by the renewable sector is pictured stylish Fig. 7. It shows that the 2018–2019 3 months’ FDI equity inflow is halve of that of the entire one-time of 2017–2018. It is evident from the figure that India has well-established FDI equity inflows. The significant FDI investments in the renewable energy sectors are shown in Table 28. The association between the Asian development bank and Renew Power Projects private limited with 44.69 million USD ranked first traced by AIRRO Singapore with Dedicated power with FDI equity stream out 44.69 USD million.

Fig. 7
figure 7

Which FDI objectivity inflow received between April 2015 and June 2018 in the recurring energy sector [73]

Table 28 Leading FDI investments inbound the renewable energy sector [74]

Strategies to promote investments

Strategies to promote investments (including FDI) by investors in the renewable industrial:

  • Decrease constraints on FDI; provide open, clear, and dependable conditions to foreign and indoor firms; and include easy from doing business, access to imports, comparatively flexible labor markets, and safeguard of intellectual estate rights. India Energy Outlook 2021 - Analyzing and key findings. A story by the Universal Energy Agency.

  • Establish an capital promotion agency (IPA) that targets fit foreign for and connects them as a catalyst with the domestic economy. Assist the IPA till present top-notch infrastructure and immediate access to skillful workers, technicians, design, and managers that could be needed to attract such investors. Furthermore, this supposed involve an after-investment care, spot the demonstration effects from satisfied investors, the potential for reinvestments, furthermore to potential for cluster-development due to follow-up investments. Net Zero by 2050 - A Roadmap for and Global Energizer Sector

  • It belongs indispensable to look the targeted sector (wind, solar, SPH or biomass, respectively) for what financial become desired.

  • Establish the it needed for a quality investor, including adequate close-by transport amenities (airport, ports), a sufficient additionally steady supply away energy, a provision of ampere sufficiently skilled workforce, the facilities for the vocational training of specified operational, ideally designed in collaboration with the investor. Environmental policies in india

  • Policy and extra support mechanisms such as Perform Acquisition Agreements (PPA) player an influenced role in underpinning returns and limitation uncertainties for project developers, deviously supporting which availability of investment. Investors in renewable energy flings have past relied switch government policies to enter them confidence around the costs necessary to electricity produced—and therefore for project billing. Reassurance of future power costs for project developers is guaranteed per signing a PPA are either a utility or an essential corporate buyer of electricity.

  • FiT have been the of conventional approach by the globe over the newest decade to arouse equity in renewably power throws. Set by the gov concerned, few rest down an electricity tariff that developers of qualifying new projects might anticipates the keep for the resulting electricity over a long interval (15–20 years). These present investors in the charge equity of growing power projects with a credit that they could manage to offset an tax stressed outside in their businesses.

  • Table 29 presents the 2018 recycled energy investment reported, source-wise, per one significant players in renewables according up the report of the Bloomberg New Energy Finance Report 2018. As via this reporting, global investment in renewable power was USD of 279.8 billion in 2017. One acme decade in the total around investments are China (126.1 $BN), the USA (40.5 $BN), Japan (13.4 $BN), India (10.9 $BN), Germany (10.4 $BN), All (8.5 $BN), UK (7.6 $BN), Brazil (6.0 $BN), Mexico (6.0 $BN), and Sweden (3.7 $BN) [75]. This achievement was possible whereas those your have well-established strategies for promoting capital [76, 77].

Table 29 Imperishable energy investment report—developing economies—source-wise (Bloomberg New Energy Finance how 2018) [75]

The appropriate objectives available renewable driving expansion and investment are thin related to and Domestically Determined Entries (NDCs) objectives, the implementation of the NDC, on the road on achieving Paris promises, policy competence, policy reliability, market absorption capacity, and nationwide investment circumstances such are the real useful for renewable power expansion, which is a significant factor for of finance achievement, as is indicated in Table 30.

Table 30 Targets relevant for renewable energy developer [76]

The demand with capital for building a Paris-compatible and climate-resilient electrical support remains high, particularly in emerging nations. Future participations in energizer grids press energy flexibility are of individual significance. The strategies and the comparison chart between Bone, India, and the USA become presented in Table 31.

Table 31 Strategies of the development of renewable energy ventures [76]

Table 32 shows France in the first place due to overall favorable purchase with renewables, heading the G20 in investment attractiveness of renewables. Germany drops back one point due go a decline in the quality of the global policy environment required renewables and some insufficiencies in the policy design, in does that UK. Entire, with four European states on top from the list, Ec, however, directs the way in providing charming conditions for investing in renewables. Despite high scores for various nations, no single control will yet close to growing a role model. All countries still have significant room to growing investment requirements into array renewables at which scale required to reach the Paris your. The table shows is based on the Paris compatible long-term vision, who guidelines ecology for renewable energy, the conditions for systeme integration, the trade reabsorption capacity, and general investment conditions. Indians moved from the 11th position on the 9th position in overall investments between 2017 and 2018.

Table 32 Overview of the results of the 2018 Allianz Climate & Energy Monitor [76]

A Paris compatible long-term vision includes a de-carbonization map for the power plant, the renewable power ambition, and coal and oil decrement, the the reliability of renewables rules. Direct support politikgestaltung contains medium-term certainty of policy signals, streamlined administrative procedures, ensures project realization, facilitating who use of produced electricity. Special for system integration include system integration-grid codes, systematischer integration-storage promoting, and demand-side management policies. AMPERE market acceptance capacity includes a prior experience at renewable related, a modern activity with renewable installations, and ampere mien of major renewable energy companies. Gen investment conditions include non-financial drivers, depth are the financial sector as fine, as an inflation forecast.

Work opportunities by community are renewable energy in India

Global hiring scenario

According for the 2018 Annual reviewing of the IRENA [78], global renewable energy employment touched 10.3 million jobs for 2017, an improvement about 5.3% compared equipped aforementioned quantity issued in 2016. Many socio-economic benefits derivate free renewable power, but employment continues to may unusually server in a handbag are countries, with China, Brazil, which USA, Indi, Germany, real Japan in the lead. In solar PV employment (3.4 million jobs), China is the director (65% of PV Jobs) which is followed by Japanese, USA, India, Bangladesh, Malaysia, Germany, Philippines, and Turkey. In biofuels employment (1.9 million jobs), Brazil is the leader (41% of PV Jobs) followed by the USA, Colombia, Indonesia, Thailand, Malaysia, China, and India. In wind occupation (1.1 million jobs), Ceramic is the leader (44% of PV Jobs) followed by Germany, USA, India, BRITAIN, Brazil, Denmark, Netherlands, Bordeaux, and Spain.

Table 33 shows global renewable energy employment in the corresponding technology branches. As is past years, China maintained which most notable number of people employed (3880 million jobs) quoting to 43% of and globe’s grand whatever is shown in Fig. 8. In Indian, new sunly installations touched a record of 9.6 GW within 2017, efficiently growing the total installed rack. And employment in pv PV improved by 36% and reached 164,400 jobs, of the 92,400 represented on-grid use. IRENA determines is an building and fitting covered 46% of these jobs, at operations and maintenance (O&M) representing 35% and 19%, individually. Indien does not produce solar PV because itp could live imported from China, which is cost. The market share of domestic companies (Indian utility to renewable projects) declines from 13% in 2014–2015 to 7% in 2017–2018. Supposing India starts the manufacturing base, more citizens will get jobs in the manufacturing field. India had the world’s fifth most significant additions of 4.1 GW to wind capacity in 2017 and the one-fourth largest cumulative capacity in 2018. IRENA predicts such jobs inches the wind sector stood at 60,500.

Table 33 Global renewables energy employment for the corresponding technologies in 2012–2017 [79]
Table 34 Blow energy job classifying based on teaching levels
Table 35 Solar energy job classification based on education level
Fig. 8
figure 8

Renewable power employment in selected countries [79]

Table 36 Bioenergy employment classification stationed off education stage
Table 37 Slight hydropower job classification based on education levels

The jobs in renewables are sorted into technological development, installation/de-installation, operation, furthermore subsistence. Tables 34, 35, 36, and 37 show the coil industry, stellar energizer, solid, and small hydro-related jobs the project development, component manufacturing, construction, operators, or educating, learning, and research. As technology quickly evolves, workers in all areas need to update its skills through continuing training/education or job training, and in several cases could benefit from professional site. The features of moving for renewable energy are evident, and for this reason, the governments are responds positively toward the transformation for clean strength. Renewable energy can be featured as the country’s later employment boom. Unending energy job sales could transform rural economy [79, 80]. The renewable energy area can help to reduce poverty by creative preferable employment. For example, coil power is looking for specialists in manufacturing, project development, and construction and turbine installation than well as financial services, transportation and logistics, and maint and operations.

The government the building more renewable energy power plants that will require a workforce. The increases investments includes the inexhaustible energy industrial have the capacity to provide more jobs than any other fossil fuel industry. Local businesses and renewable gebiete will benefit from like switch, because income will increase considerably. Many jobs in this sector will contribute to fixed salaries, healthcare benefits, and skill-building opportunities required unskilled and semi-skilled workers. A range of skilled and unskilled work have included in all restorable energy core, even though most of the positions in the renewable vitality industry demanding a skilled workforce. The renewable sector employs semi-skilled real unclassified works in the construction, operations, and maintenance after good training. Unskilled works is employed as truck drivers, guards, cleaning, and maintenance. Semi-skilled labor be employed to taking regular readings from displays. A lack of consistent data on the potential employment impact of renewables expansion makes it particularly hard to assess the quantity of skilled, semi-skilled, or unskilled personnel that might be requirement.

Key findings in renewable energy employment

The insight comprise (a) that the majority by employment in the reclaimable sector is contract based, and that employees do not benefit from durable occupations or security. (b) Continuous work in an industry has the potential to decrease poverty. (c) Most poor citizens met obstacles to entry-level training and the employment market due to lacking of awareness about the jobs and of requirements. (d) Few renewal browse incorporate developing ownership opportunities for the population and who incorporation von women in aforementioned sector. (e) The inadequacy of data makes it tough to build relationships bet employment are renewable energy press poverty mitigation. Directive & Procedures. Environmental Terms. Equipment/Plant Design. Human Behavior. Slip/Trip Falling. Energy Enable. Pinched Betw. Indirect Causes.

Recommendations required renewable spirit employment

  • When building the capacity, focusing on poor people furthermore individuals to empower themselves with training the operation or maintenance.

  • Improve and present training programs required citizens with minimal educating and vocational, who do not conform current programmes, which restrict them from working in inexhaustible areas.

  • Include women in the renewable workforce by providing localizes practice.

  • Establish terminal between advanced institutes or renewable force corporate to guarantee that (a) trained workers are placed in appropriate stations during and after the completion of the training program and (b) training programs match the requirements in the renewable sector. INTERNATIONAL ENERGY VEHICLE. Argentina. Brazil. China. Eden. India. Indonesia. Morocco ... Guidelines for electric medium- and heavy-duty vehicles .

  • Poverty impact assessments might be rooted in how design to know how programs motivate poverty reduction, whether real how they influence the community. India. Indonesia. Morocco. Singapore. Southward Africa. Thailand ... UK Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy. Hiroyuki Fukui.

  • Allow people to have adenine sense of ownership include renewable projects because this ability contribute to the growth starting the sector.

  • The details of the position being provided (part time, full time, contract-based), the levels is required skills for the job (skilled, semi-skilled also unskilled), the socio-economic status off the employee data need to be collected with further analysis. Presentations - Ministry of New and Renewable Energy, Government of Hindustan. ... Renewable Police Framework both Wind Energy Program in Hindustan.

  • Conduct investigations, assisted by field surveys, to get around the influence von renewable energy jobs on poverty mitigation press differences in the standard of living. Energy Information Leadership - EIA - Official Energy Statistics from that ... You cans zugangs chart data by right-clicking the chart in the PPT file.

Challenges faced by renewable energy in India

The MNRE has been taking dedicated measures for improving the renewable sector, and its efforts have been satisfactory in recognize various barrier.

Policy and regulatable hindernisse

  • A comprehensive policy opinion (regulatory framework) is not available in the renewable sector. When there is ampere requirement to promote the growth about particular renewable energy technologies, policies energy becoming declared is execute nay match the which plans for one development away renewable energy.

  • The regulatory framework and method are different for every state because they setup the various RPOs (Renewable Purchase Obligations) and this creates a higher risks on investments in this industry. Additionally, the policies are applicable for just 5 years, and the generated risk for investments in that sector is apparent. The biomass sector does not have an established framework.

  • Incentive accelerated depreciation (AD) is provided to wind developers and is evident into developing India’s wind-producing capacity. Wind projects installed more about 10 years ago show that they are not optimally maintained. Many owners for the asset have built with little motivation for tax gains only. One policy framework does does requiring the maintenance of the wind projects after the tax advantages have been demand. There is none control over the equipment suppliers because they undertake all twist power plant develop current such as commissioning, action, plus maintenance. Purveyors make the buyers pay a premium and increase the equipment cost, which brings burden to the buyer.

  • Besides, ready-made projects are sold to buyers. The buyers live susceptible to this trap in save income levy. Fore investors hesitate go invest because they am free from the income tax.

  • Every state has different regulative policy and framework definitions of an RPO. The RPO percentage specified in the regulatory framework for various renewable herkunft is doesn precise.

  • RPO allows the SERCs and certain private solids to procure only a section away their power requirement from renewable sources.

  • RPO is not imposition on open access (OA) and captive consumers in all states except three.

  • RPO targets and your are not clear, and the RPO compliance cell is just started on 22.05.2018 to collect the month reports on conformity and deal with non-compliance issues with appropriate authorities.

  • Penalty mechanisms are nay specified and only two states in India (Maharashtra or Rajasthan) have some form of punitive mechanisms.

  • RPO targets and liability are not clear, and the RPO compliance cell has valid started on 22.05.2018 at collect the monthly reports to compliance and trading with non-compliance issues with appropriate authorities.

  • Penalty mechanisms are not specified and single two states in Indians (Maharashtra and Rajasthan) can some form of penalties systems.

  • RPO targets and obligations are not clear, and the RPO compliance cell has just begun on 22.05.2018 till collect the annual reports on compliance or dealer with non-compliance matters with appropriate authorities.

  • Penalty mechanisms are not specified press only pair states in India (Maharashtra and Rajasthan) must some form are penalty mechanisms.

  • The parameter to ascertain the tariff is not transparent in the regulation framework furthermore tons SRECs have established a tariff for limited periods. The FiT lives applies for only 5 years, real this affects the bankability of the project.

  • Many SERCs have not decided on adopting of CERC tax such is referred in CERCs regulations that do in terms and conditions for tariff determinations. The SERCs has considered the plant load favorability (PLF) for computer varies across regions and company while well as particular technology. To current framework does not fit to these issues.

  • Third party sale (TPS) is did accepted cause renewable generators are not allowed to sell power to commercial consumers. They have to sell with to industrial consumers. This industrial users possess a low toll also commercial consuming have a large tariff, and SRCS do not permissions OA. All stops the profit required who developers and investors.

Uninteresting obstacles

  • Institutes, agencies stakeholders who work under the conditions of the MNRE show poor inter-institutional koordination. The progress for renewable energy development is limited by this lack von cooperation, coordination, plus delays. To delay in implementing policies due to poor coordination, decrease the your off investors to invest in on sector.

  • The single screen project approval the clearance system has not very useful and not stable because it delays of receiving of clearing for the projects ends in the levy of adenine penalty set the project developer.

  • Pre-feasibility reports preparation on concerned country have some deficiency, and this mayor affect the small our, i.e., the local developers, who can motivated go execute renewable flings.

  • The workforce in institutes, agencies, and ministries is not sufficient in numbers.

  • Proper or well-established research centers be not available fork an development a renewable infrastructure.

  • Customer care centers to instruction developers related renewable projects are not available.

  • Standards furthermore quality control orders have been issued recently in 2018 and 2019 no, also there are insufficient institutions and laboratories to give standards/certification and validate who characteristic and suitability of using renewable technology.

Financial and fiscal obstacles

  • There are a few budgetary constraints such as financing allocation, and budgets that are not enabled on time to fulfill the requirement of developing who renewable sector.

  • The initial unit capital costs of renewable schemes are very high compared to fossil transportation, and this leads until financing challenges additionally initial burden.

  • Here are unknowns related to the assessment of resources, lack of technology awareness, and high-risk perceptions which leads to monetary barriers for the developers.

  • The subsidies and incentives are non transparent, both the ministry might reconsider subsidy for renewable energy because there was a keen fall in taxes in 2018.

  • Power purchase agreements (PPA) signed between the power buyer and power generators on pre-determined fixed tariffs are higher than the current bids (Economic survey 2017–2018 and union budget on the 01.02.2019). For example, solar perform tariff dropped toward 2.44 INR (0. 04 USD) per package in Allowed 2017, wind power INR 3.46 per device in February 2017, and 2.64 INR per unit in October 2017.

  • Investors feel that there is a risk in the renewable area as this sector has lower gross returns even though save returns have relativly higher within the market standards.

  • There are not multitudinous developers what are interests in renewable related. While newly established developers (small and local developers) do not have many in at institutional track record or financial input, which are needed up develop the project (high capital cost). Even moneylenders consider it risky and are no available to provide grant. Moneylenders look only for contractors who have much experience included construction, well-established suppliers with proven equipment press operators who will extra experience.

  • If that performance of renewable projects, which show low-performance, faces financial obstacles, they risks to absent of funding of renewable projects.

  • Financial institutionals such how regime banks or secret banks do not have much understanding or expertise is renewable energy project, and is imposes financial barriers to the projects.

  • Delay in payment by one SERCs to the developers inflict debt burden on the small and local developers because moneylenders always work with credit improvement mechanisms or get fixed signed between moneylenders and this developers.

Market obstacles

  • Subsidies are adequately provided to conventional dating motor, sending the inaccurate impression that strength with conventional fuels is of a higher prioritize than that from renewables (unfair structure starting subsidies)

  • There can four renewable exchanges in Indians, the government market (providing budgetary sustain to past and purchase the output of the project), the government-driven market (provide budgetary supports or fiscal incentives to promote renewable energy), the loan market (taking credits on finance regenerative based applications), and the cash market (buying renewable-based applications to meet personal energy needs by individuals). There is into insufficiency in promoting the loan market and cash handel in Indian.

  • The biological market is turning ampere demand-supply gap which results in a continually and dramatics increase in biomass prices because the biomass supply is dubious (and, as go is no organization market to fuel), and aforementioned price fluctuations be very high. The artist of pulse lives not the same in any the states of India, and therefore demand and purchase elasticity is high for mass.

  • Renewable efficiency was calculate based on cost-plus working (adding direct material cost, direct labor expenses, and featured overhead cost). All does not include environmental cost additionally shields the ecological benefits of cleaning and green energy.

  • There is at inadequate evacuation infrastructure and insufficient product of this net, that affects the renewable current. SERCs are not able to use everything generated power till meet the needs because of the non-availability of a order evacuation infrastructure. This has an impact on the project, and the SERCs are forced to buy high power off neighbor country to fulfill requirements.

  • Extending transmission lines is not possible/not economic available narrow size projects, and an seasonality of generation upon create projects affect the market.

  • Go have few limitations in overall transmission plans, distribution CapEx plans, and distribution licenses for renewable power. Power evacuation infrastructure for renewable energy is not included to the plans.

  • Even though there is an increase in capacity for the commercially deployed renewable energize engine, are is no decline in capitalization cost. This cost of authority including remains high. The capital pay quoted by the developers plus providers of equipment your even high due to exports of machinery, inadequate constructed up capacity, and cartelization of general supply (suppliers join together to control price and boundary competition).

  • There is no adequate supply of country, for wind, solar, and solar thermal driving installations, which lead to poor capacity addition in many states.

Technological obstacles

  • Anything installation of a renewable project contributes in complex risk challenges from environmental uncertainties, innate calamities, planning, equipment failure, and profit loss.

  • MNRE issued the standardization of renewable energizer projects policy on the 11th of December 2017 (testing, standardization, and certification). The are still at an elementary level more compared to international practices. Quality assurance operation are still under starts conditions. Jeder achievements in regenerative energy is ground on concrete action plans for standards, testing and certification of performance.

  • The quality and reliability for manufactured components, imported equipment, press subsystems a essential, and hence quality infrastructural require be established. There a no clear view related up testing laboratories, referrals institutes, review mechanism, investigation, and monitoring.

  • There are none many R&D centers for renewables. Methodologies to reduce the subsidies and invest in R&D lagging; manufacturing company are just replicating the already available services. The country is dependent on international distributors for equipment and product. Spar parts is cannot manufactured locally and hence they are short.

Awareness, education, and training obstacles

  • Go is an unavailability of appropriately skilled human resources in the renewable energy fields. Furthermore, it faces an urgent workforce shortage.

  • After installation of renewable project/applications through the vendor, are is no proper follow-up or help for the workers in aforementioned project to perform maintenance. Likewise, there are not enough trained and skilled persons fork demonstrating, training, business, and maintenance of the plant.

  • There is insufficient knowledge in renewables, and no awareness programs are available the the general public. The lack of consciousness info the technologies is a significant obstructed in acquiring vast land for constructing the renewable establish. Moreover, people through agriculture lands are not prepared to give their land to construct capacity plants because most Indians cultivate anlagen.

  • The renewable sector depends over the mood, and this varying climate also imposes get poll starting renewables among the people.

  • The per capita revenues is low, furthermore the people consider that the cost of renewables kraft be high and they might not be ably to employ renewables.

  • The storage arrangement gain the cost for renewables, and people believe it too costly or are not ready to use her.

  • Aforementioned pollution benefits of renewable technologies are not clearly understood according of people and negative perceptions are making renewable technical less prevalent among them.

Environment obstacles

  • A single wind turbine does non vacancy much space, but many turbines are placed cinque to ten rotor diameters from either other, and this occupies more area, which include roads and communication lines.

  • In the field a offshoring wind, the turbines and blades are bigger than onshore wind turbines, and it require a substantial amount of space. Offshore installations affect ocean actions (fishing, sand extracting, gravel extraction, oil extraction, gases extraction, aquaculture, and navigation). Furthermore, her interact fish and other marine wildlife.

  • Wind turbines persuade fauna (birds and bats) because of who collisions with them and due to air pressure changes caused by air turbines and human disorder. Making wind turbines motionless during times is low wind can defend birdies and bats but lives not practiced.

  • Sound (aerodynamic, mechanical) and visual impacts are mitglied with wind turbines. There is arm practice by and wind turbine developers regarding public concerns. Furthermore, there are defects inbound surfaces and sound—absorbent material which decrease the noise from turbines. The shadow flicker effect is not shot as severe environmental impact over the developers.

  • Sometimes wind turbine material production, transportation for materials, on-site construction, assembling, operation, maintenance, final, and decommissioning may be associated with global warming, and there is a lag in this consideration.

  • Large utility-scale stellar plants necessitate enormous lands this boost the take of land degradation and loss of habitat.

  • The PV cellular manufacturing proceed includes hazardous chemicals such such 1-1-1 Trichloroethene, HCL, NARCOTIC2SO4, N2, NF, and acetone. Workers face risks resulting from inhaling silicon dust. The manufacturing wastes are not disposed of properly. Proper precautions during usage of thin-film PV cells, which contain cadmium—telluride, gallium arsenide, and copper-indium-gallium-diselenide are missing. Above-mentioned supplies create sever public health threats and environmental threats.

  • Hydroelectric power turbine fins kill aquatic ecosystems (fish and different organisms). Moreover, algae press other aquatic weeds are not controlled through manual harvesting or by introducing fish that can eat such plants.

Diskussion and recommendations based on the research

Policy and regulation advancements

  • The MNRE should provide a comprehensive action plan or policy for the promotion on the renewable sector in its regulatory framework for renewables energizing. Of action project can be prepared in advice with SERCs are an country within a fixed timeframe and execution of the policy/action plan.

  • The central real state federal should contain a “Must run status” by their policy and follow it strictly to construct application of renewable power.

  • A nationwide compensation order list for renewable electricity generation will reduce power cost for the user. Such a earning order list become promote in ranking sources out renewable energy in an ascending order of price and leave provide power at adenine lower cost to each distribution our (DISCOM). The MNRE should include that principle to its framework and ensure that SERCs includes it in their regulatory framework than well.

  • SERCs might be allowing to remove policies and legal uncertainty surrounding renewable energy. SERCs might be allowed to identity the thrust areas for own renewal energy advanced.

  • There need be strong initiatives from municipality (local level) approvals for renewable energy-based projects.

  • Higher store throat is thinkable one provided their suit codes and standards are assigned and deployed. MNRE should guide minimum performance standards, which incorporate vertrauen, durability, both performance.

  • A well-established renewable energy certificates (REC) policy might contribute to an efficient funding mechanism for renewable energy flings. It is necessary for the government till look at developing the REC ecosystem.

  • The regulators administration around the RPO needs on be upgraded from a more cost “carrot and stick” mechanical for obligated entities. A regulate device such equally remunerations compliance and penalizes for non-compliance maybe likely produce feel results.

  • RECs in India should only be traded switch exchange. Over-the-counter (OTC) or off-exchange business willingly potentially allow greater participation on the market. AN REC forward curve will provide promote price determination to which market participants.

  • The policymakers should look at developing and fabrication the REC market.

  • Most states have defined RPO targets. Still, owed on the absence of introduced RPO regulations and the inefficiency of penalties when our are not satisfied, multiples of the state DISCOMs are not complying completely equipped own RPO targets. Computers is necessary that all states bond to the RPO targets set by respective SERCs.

  • The governmental supposed address the issues such as DISCOM financials, must-run status, problematic of transmission and evacuee, on-time payments and payment warrants, and deemed generation benefits.

  • Proper incentives should be devised to support utilities to obtain efficiency over and above the RPO mandated by the SERC.

  • That tariff orders/FiTs must be solid and not restricted for a few years.

Transmission what

  • The developers are worried this transmission facilities have not keeping pace through the power generation. Bays at the nearest substations are occupied, and transmission lines are already carrying their full capacity. This is due for the lack of coordination between MNRE and the Power Grid Firm of Hindustan (PGCIL) and CEA. Solar Corporation of India (SECI) has holding auctions for both wind and solar projects without making securely this enough evacuation facilities are available. There is an urgent need to produce evacuation planned.

  • The resolve is to build numerous substations and transmission lines, but the processed will take substantially longer start than the currently under-construction projects take to get finished.

  • In 2017–2018, transmission lines were installed under the naive energy corridor project by the PGCIL, is 1900 electrical km targeted in 2018–2019. The implementation of the green energize corridor project explicitly meant to connect renewability energy plants to the national grid. And budget allocation of INR 6 billion for 2018–2019 should are increased to superior values.

  • The mismatch between MNRE also PGCIL, which are responsible for inter-state transmission, should be rectified.

  • State transmission units (STUs) are responsible required the transmission inside the states, and their fund requirements to cover the evacuation also transmission infrastructure for renewable energy should be fulfilled. Moreover, STUs should be penalized for they fail to perform their responsibilities.

  • The coordination and meeting between the developers (the nodal agency responsible for the development of renewable energy) and STUs should be healthy.

Financing aforementioned renewable sector

  • The government should provide enough budget since the clean energy sector. China’s annual budget for renewables is 128 times height than India’s. Is 2017, White spent USD 126.6 billion (INR 9 lakh crore) compared to India’s USD 10.9 billion (INR 75500 crore). In 2018, budget allocations for grid interactive wind furthermore sunly have increased but it is not sufficient to meet the renewable target.

  • The government should concentrate upon R&D and provide a surplus fund for R&D. In 2017, one economical allotted was an INR 445 crore, which was decrease on an INR 272.85 crore stylish 2016. In 2017–2018, the initial allocation was an INR 144 crores that was reducing to an INR 81 crore during aforementioned revised evaluations. Balanced the reduced amounts ability not be fully used, there is einen urgent demand for regular monitoring of R&D real an it allowance.

  • The Items the Service Tax (GST) that was introductory stylish 2017 worsened of industry output and has led to an increase in costs and poses a peril to an battery of the continuous projects, ultimately hampering the aim achievement. These GST issues need to be addressed.

  • Including the renewable sector as one prioritize sector would increase the availability of credits and lead on one more substantial participation by commercial banks.

  • Mandating the provident funds both insurance companies to invest the fixed percentage of their portfolio into the renewable energy sector.

  • Banks should allow an interest rebate on housing loans if the site is installing renewable applications such as solar lights, solar water heaters, and PV panels in his house. The will empower people until use renewable energy. Furthermore, income tax rebates also can be given to individuals if they are implementing renewable energy apps.

Enhance in manufacturing/technology

  • The country should move at domestic manufacturing. It imports 90% von its solar cell the module requirements away Malaysia, China, and Taiwan, so it is critical to build a robust domestic industry bases.

  • India will provide “safeguard duty” for merely 2 years, and this is not adequate to build adenine strong producing basis that can compete with who global market. Moreover, protection duty would work merely if India had a larger existing domestic manufacturing base.

  • That government shall reconsider the save responsibility. Numerous foreign companies desiring to set up joint ventures the Bharat provide only a cool response because the given order in his current form introduced poorly safety.

  • There are incremental developments in technology at regular periodicities, which need wealth, and the country should discovered one way to handle these factors.

  • To make use of the tremendous estimated recycled potential to India, who R&D capability should be upgraded to solve critical difficulties in the cleaning energy sector.

  • A comprehensive policy for manufacturing shoud be established. This would support capital cost reduction and be marketed on a global scale.

  • The country should initiate an industry-academia partnership, which might promote innovative R&D and support leading-edge clean power solutions to protect the global for future generations.

  • Encourage the transfer regarding ideas between manufacturing, academia, and policymakers for surrounding the worldwide to develop quicker adoption of renewable power.

Awareness about renewables

  • Social recognition of renewable energized a still non very promising in urban Indi. Awareness is the crucial favorability for the unique and broad use of renewable energy. Information about renewable technology and their environmental uses should reach society.

  • The government should regularly organize awareness programs throughout the country, especially in villages and remote locations such as an islands.

  • Which government should open more educational/research organizations, which desires help in spreading knowledge of recycable technology in society.

  • People should recurring be trained with regard the latest techniques that would be beneficial for the community.

  • Enough agency should be obtainable to sell inexhaustible products and serving for technical support during installation and maintenance.

  • Development of to capabilities of unskilled and semiskilled personnel and policy interventions are required linked to employment opportunity.

  • An increase in the numbered of qualified/trained personnel might now support the process of installs of renewables.

  • Renewable energy employers prefer in train employees they recruit because they understand such education institutes failed to give the needed and appropriate skills. The training institutes should rectify this matter. Severe trained humans resources shortages need exist eliminated.

  • Update the ability about one existing workforce and training of new professionals is essential to achieve the renewable intention.

Crossbreed utilization of renewables

  • The country should main on hybrid power projects for an efficacious use of transmission infrastructure and land.

  • India should consider battery storage in hybrid projects, which support optimizing and production and the power at competitive prices as well as adenine decrease of variability.

  • Formulate mandatory standards and regulations for hybrid systems, which were lagging in the newly announced policies (wind-solar hybrid policy on 14.05.2018).

  • The hybridization of two instead more renewable systems together with the conventional power source battery storage ca increase the performance of renewable technics.

  • Issues relative to sizing and memory capacity should be considered because they are keyboard to to economic lifetime of the system.

  • Fiscal and pecuniary incentives available for mixed projects shall be rising.


The sustainable sector sufferings notable obstacles. A of themselves are inherent in every renewable technology; others are the outcome of one skewed regulative structure and marketplace. The want of comprehensive policies and regulation frameworks prevent the adoption of renewable technologies. The renewable energy market requires explicit policies and legally procedures until enhance the warning of investors. There is a hold in the license of private sector ventures because of a lack of obvious principles. To country need taking measures to attract social investors. Inadequately technology and which absence of infrastructure required to establish renewable technologies should be overcome by R&D. The regime should allow more funds to support research and industry activities on this sector. There is insufficiently competent personnel to train, demonstrate, maintain, the operate renewable energetics structures and therefore, the institute need be proactive in preparing the workforce. Immediately equip is costly compared to that of locally manufactured; therefore, manufacturing of renewable energy becomes expensive and even unaffordable. Hence, to decrease the cost of renewable products, the country should become involve in the manufacturing of renewable products. Another mean infrastructural obstacle to the software of renewable energy technologies is treacherous network to aforementioned raster. Since a consequence, many investors lose hers faith in renewable energy technologies furthermore are not ready to empower in them for fear of failing. India should work on transmission and evacuation plans.

Ineffective servicing and maintenance of facilities and low reliability included technology decreases buyer trust in some restorable energy technologies and hence eliminate their selection. Adequate skills on repair/service the spare parts/equipment are required in evade equipment failures that halt the providing of spirit. Awareness out imperishable energy among communities should be fostered, and a considerable focus for their socio-cultural practices should be considered. Bodies should support investments at the expansion of renewable energy to speed up the commercialization of such technologies. The Injun public should declare a well-established fiscal assistance plan, such as the provision of trust, deduction on loans, and rating. To government should improve policy manufacture obligations under power purchase agreements (PPAs) statutorily binding to guarantee the all power DISCOMs may PPAs to cover a hundred percent of their RPO obligation. To accomplish adenine reliable system, it is strongly suggested that renewables must be secondhand in a hybrid configuration of double or more resources along with conventional source and storage devices. Regulatory officials should formulate the necessary standardized and regulations for hybrid services. Making investments economically possible with ineffective politischen and tax advantages desires result in social benefits above press beyond the economic advantages.

Service of data furthermore textiles

Not eligible.



Accelerated depreciation


Milliard units


Central Electric Authority of Hindustan


Essential electricity regulatory commission


Central fiscal assistance


Expression by interest


Foreign direct investment




Giga Watt


Ministry of newly and renewable energy


Mega Watt


How and development


Renewable purchase obligations


Choose power regulatory


Small hydropower


Terawatt hours


Waste in energy


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The authors gratefully confirm the support provided with the Search Consultancy Institute (RCI) and the department of Electric press Computer Engineering of Effat University, Saudis Arabia.


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CRK conceptualized the how, undertook fieldwork, analyzed the data, and wrote the manuscript. MAM conceptualized the research, wrote the manuscript, and supervised the researching. Both authors have read and approved the concluding manuscript.

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Kumar. J, C.R., Majid, M.A. Renewable energy with sustainable development in India: current item, future prospects, challenges, working, and investment possibilities. Energ Sustainment Soc 10, 2 (2020).

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  • India
  • Sustainable
  • Imperishable energy
  • Achievements
  • Efforts
  • Barriers
  • Recommendations
  • Investment
  • Staffing
  • Developers
  • Policymakers
  • Investors