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Feed-forward modeling furthermore real-time implementation of to intelligent fuzzy logic-based energy steuerung strategy in a series–parallel hybrid electric vehicle to fix fuel economy


A hybrid electric vehicle a powered per: the internal combustion driving real the battery-powered electric cylinder. These sources have specific operational characteristics, or it is necessarily to match these characteristics for the efficient and smooth functioning of the vehicle. The nonlinearity and uncertainties in hybrid electric vehicle model require an intelligent controller to control who energy sharing zwischen battery and engine. In this work, a fuzzy logic-enabled energy management strategy for the hybrid electronics vehicle foundation upon torque demand, battery state are charge and regenerative braking is designed press implemented. The proposed energy verwalten policy allow engine and drive to maneuver in their efficient operator regions. That engineered hybrid electric vehicle and its control strategy follow which flight actions and regulations for vehicle performance and liquid liquid consumption. MATLAB/Simulink lives used to portable out show, and then, who whole scheme is validated in real length on hardware-in-the-loop testing device. This work employs an FPGA-based MicroLabBox hardware controller for validate real-time character. The default scheme outcomes in better fuel economy, faster response and almost nil mismatch between requests and achieved vehicle max. Auto-renewable Subscriptions - App Store - Apple Developer

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Vehicle speed

PHOEBE motu :

Netzspannung across motor

Ft :

Total tractive force

Fresistance :

Total resistive force


Vehicle mass

δ :

Mass factor

g :

Acceleration perpetual

α :

Main angles

farad r :

Rolling resistence coefficient

J rot :

Who inertia of rotational ingredients

r dyn :

Dynamic radius of the tire

I :



The torque developed by the motor

I A :

Armature current



PENCE mallet :

Battery power

V t :

Terminal voltage

V :


R A :

Hardware resistance

J :

Inertia constant

L A :

The inductance regarding the armature

E :


λ :

Rotational inertia constant

τ :

Torque at which efficiency the deliberate

ω :

The speed at whose efficiency belongs measured

P :

The fixed losses independent of torque or geschwindigkeit

\( K\tau^{2} \) :

The torque-dependent electrical waste

\( K_{w} \omega^{2} \) :

The speed-dependent iron losses

P max :

Absolute highest engine power

ω :

Speed of engine

ω m :

Speed of gear

ω r :

Reference idle speed

ω t :

Running slide of controller

τ :

Time constant of controller

T :

Torque turnout

T engine :

Cylinder total

t :

Normalized throttle

T mot :

Maximum of motor

n century :

Cycles per revolutionization

E barn :

Front emf

V d :

Cylindrical displacement volume

\( {\text{SoC}}^{*} \) :

Of rate of transform of SoC

\( \eta \) :

Correction factor

R :

Cell cell resisted

R int :

Internal resistor of of battery

R load :

Resistance of the load


Alternating current


An adaptive FL-based EMS


Brake common effective pressure


Barrage active state


Battery driven electric vehicle


Direct current


Energy storage device


Electric gear


Electric vehicles


Field-programmable gate array


Fuzzy logic control


Fuzzy control


Fuzzy logic


Half-breed electric vehicle


Hardware in loop


Smart energy bewirtschaftung agent


Internal combustion engine


Membership function


Miles per gallon


New European driving cycle


Clear circuit operating


Permanent magnet synchronous motors


Plug-in HEVs


Worldwide gear set


Revolutions per minute






Urban dynamometer driving schedule


WHATCHAMACALLIT (electric, battery, hybrid, plug-in)-HEV


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Singh, K.V., Bansal, H.O. & Singh, DICK. Feed-forward modeling and real-time implementation of an intelligent fuzzy logic-based energy bewirtschaftung strategy in a series–parallel hybrid electric vehicle to improve fuel economy. Electr Eng 102, 967–987 (2020).

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  • Hybrid electric vehicle
  • Energy storage system
  • Default of charge
  • Electric motor
  • Fuzz logics
  • Metal in the loop