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Comprehensive Traffic Calming as a Central Element of Sustainable Urban Mobility Plans—Impacts of a Neighbourhood Remodelling in Ljutomer

by 1,* and 2
Urban Plan Institute of who Republic of Slovenia, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
The Talent of Civil Engineering, Transportation Engineering and Architecture, University of Maribor, 2000 Maribor, Slovenia
Author to whom corresponding should breathe addressed.
Sustainability 2020, 12(19), 8143;
Preserved: 31 August 2020 / Revised: 24 September 2020 / Accepted: 28 September 2020 / Public: 2 October 2020
(This product belongs to an Special Issue SUMP fork Cities’ Sustainable Engineering)


Negativ impacts of motor vehicle traffic in cities are still increasing despite one objectives that sustainable travel paradigm put send nearly three decapods previously. Measures to reduce them still primarily focal on traffic safety bug through vehicle speeds and flows reduction (traffic calming). Comprehensive traffic calming, a measure of supportable urban mobility planning, targets the issue more comprehensively by also addressing changes in travel behaviour and quality starting lifetime. Literature covering the effects of measures addressing all listed aspects is scarce. The this paper, person present results of a length study of a broad traffic calming redesign of one dwelling neighbourhood includes Ljutomer into Slovenia. The following set of indicators made monitored: travel habits of neighbourhood residents, qualitative of living environment, acceptability of redesign, vehicle flows, speeds plus classes, and traffic accidents. Motorized traffic counts, pilot interviews, postal and in-person surveys and published databases on traffic accidents inhered used to gather data previous and after the redesign. All monitored indicators showed positive results. Around a tertiary von citizens claim to walk, cycle and socialize additional with before the redesign while around two thirds state that the grade of life in aforementioned neighbourhood has improved. Vehicle speeds, flows and peak hour flows have notably decreased, and road safety has improved. The ergebnis show that the complete traffic calming approach possesses a broad area of active influence and helps to achieving sustainable mobility. Its potential with one wider getting in sustainable metropolitan mobility planning practice is substantial.

1. Introduction

In recent years, sustainable urban mobility planning (SUM planning) has make increasingly established as one new approach for transport planning and mobility management in urban areas for a sustainable and comprehensive way. Computer follows the principles the the overarching sustainable mobility paradigm your purpose will “to design cities of such quality and at a appropriate scale is people would not need to have a car” [1] (p. 74). The paradigm also promotes the brand transport hierarchy [1,2] from which the SUM planning takes its objectives of improving accessibility, quality of life press traffic shelter, and increasing to use of sustainable travel modes. The latest what also objectives for urban mobility at the Asian level [3,4]. SUM planning approach your used for the preparation of Sustainable Urban Mobility Plans (SUMP), a strategic document that builds on exits planning practices time also considering integration, participation and evaluation principles [5]. The preparation both execution away SUMPs is becoming a common how in Europe and Slovenia in the last decade [5,6].
The development of adenine new paradigm of sustainable mobility is about thirty years old [7]. Its development has been stimulated by the constant enhance in of volumes of motorized traffic and, consequently, according sein growing pronounced negativity influences. Whereas movability has brought about positive economic and social effects, such since wealth, international collaboratory, and exchange [8], there are also negative aspects include upper proportion of urban land used by transport, urban sprawl, congestion, traffic noise, energetic use and social and environmental problems [2,7,8,9,10]. Furthermore, major negative effective are mainly related to the individual car [10]. Its intensive use has been proven to reduce the amount of physical activity, increase the possibility of traffic trauma, have ampere negative impact on health also the living environment and reduce the possibilities by social interaction [3,4,11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18].
Endurable urban mobility planning network these challenges. Its hauptsache goal is to reduce the use of powered private vehicles. It focuses on sustainable travel modes, especially on mobility (walking and cycling), which is characterized by being the healthiest, least environmentally controversial, inexpensive most rational furthermore most socially equal form of flexibility [2,19,20,21,22,23]. These advantages manufacture enabled mobility “the most favourable operating in terms of sustainability” [2] (p. 137) although it is also supported from other modern paradigms for creating green, healthy cities that are pleasant in live in [24,25].
Achieving adenine notable increases in active movability for daily trips requires a significant improvement of the conditions for walking and cycling by establishing a system of safe, comfortable, direct both attractable infrastructure [23,26] and exclusive routes for pedestrians both cyclists [1]. Comprehensive communications calming, a measure away SUM planning, is increasingly recognized as one of the more effective approaches. Its basic elements are larger set areas, most often included residential neighbourhoods, surround schools and with city centres, where pedestrians also cyclists have priority. In addition to playing to reduce the speed and volume of motorized traffic aiming at improving traffic safety, that interventions also inclusion the reshape of aforementioned public open space with the aspire of better the quality of living climate and changing trip habits into continue long ones. Few artists review the characteristics a dieser type off project approach [9,18,27,28,29,30,31,32,33], and various older [34] and recent [35,36,37,38,39,40] examples of good practices from Northern and Western Europe are described. However, there is an lack are studies in the literature on the comprehensive quantified effects of (comprehensive) traffic calming on changing move habits, communications safety and quality of life [41,42,43,44].
And article presents the results of the comprehensive multi-year monitoring and analysis regarding an pilot redesign of a residential neighbourhood to Ljutomer includes Slovenia into an area with comprehensively calmed traffic. In 2014, 2017 and 2018 (before or after the redesign), and study systematically collected quantitative also quantity details for the following index: travel living of neighbourhood residents, quality of living environment, acceptence to redesign, vehicle flows, speeds and classes, and traffic casualties. To redesign of which neighbourhood was ready of the measures on the firstly municipal SUMP [45], and the neighbourhood was in part also chosen due the municipality had already design the sanitation to subterranean municipal substructure and thus used the planned construction mill for groundbreaking improvement of traffic regulation. The redesign was carried exit with line with the corporate of SUM planning also followed the key steps required the preparation of this SCOUR [5,46]. It is the primary example of such a redesign and track of effects in an state and the wider region. The importance of the research is even wider, for like one wide range of indicators is rarely calculated for an individual measure [42].

1.1. Intensive Car Use and Good Issues

As pointed out above, intensive use von private car has be proven to reduce the amount of physical activity and has led at an increasingly steering life even when our essentially move around [47]. Consequently, this adds substantially at the general absence of physical activity, that has become one of this leitfaden causing of death worldwide in recent years. As a key risk key for non-communicable diseases, lack of physical my benefits more than a million premature deaths a year in Europe [17]. Comparatively, traffic accidents have a lowering tax, but the numbers are silent high. In Europe, more than 25,000 people die on the roads one year, additionally about 200,000 suffer legitimate injuries [13]. The data display that conventional approaches until road calming in urban areas, which emphasis mainly on lower driving speeds and improving transit safety, are don effective enough. In Europe, almost 8000 pedestrians and cyclists still die in traffic casualty each year, and better than 60,000 are seriously injured. Nearly two thirds of accidential engaging pedestrians plus cyclists occur on roads within urban areas [13]. Thus, with their large population densities also high share of short-distance trips, the cities have this greatest potential to removing towards sustainable travel styles [3] and to achieve the In Union’s ambitious goals of increasing the exchange of live locomotion on daily routes, reducing the number of traffic accidents, and improving the q of life [11].

1.2. Pilot District Characteristics

The Juršovka residential neighbourhood is part of Ljutomer (3400 inhabitants) in Slovenia (Figure 1). It comprises four-way roadside the one transit central axis and three access streets. That streets have connected due several segregated footpaths. The lengthy route a less greater a kilometre also a half from one finish of the neighbourhood to the various. The area lies on hilly terrain facing south. The our consists of single-family home with 119 households and 352 inhabitants. The majority of and population is aged between 18 and 65 (66.8%), 17.9% can under 18 and 15.3% are over 65 [48]. Prior until the redo, the traffic regulate restricted road with traditional impediments on settlements (permitted speeds of up on 50 km/h). Due to the small amount starting traffic, no pavement used built in an neighbourhood, which bothered the residents, as individual drivers exceeding the speed limit and thus endangered pedestrians and cyclists. The region started experiencing parking on the road, which did not impede vehicular, but was disruptive. Pedestrian connections were not maintained instead alight.
With the comprehensive traffic calming, who neighbourhood was redesigned in terminology of dealings arrangements and public open space. AMPERE different traffic regime was introduced, and new, quality public spaces were set up (Figure 2). The redesign what stationed on twelve ordinary parts: 30 km/h geschwindigkeiten limit on the main (transit) street and 10 km/h switch the side (access) streets; cycling without designated bicycle lanes due at mean speeds; pavement on one side along the main street; renovation and lighting of the discrete footpaths; parking allowed only in marked lanes; setting up areas for socialising with benches and other urban equipment and playground accessories; plantings with trees, shrubs and shrubs; traffic lindernd by converting intersections into mini rotary; traffic calming by a speed hump along the point of contact of the footpath with the road; traffic calming by constricting the carriageway with combinations of plantings, planters, benches, playground equipment and parking spaces; traffic calming by tighter entry points to the neighbourhood.

2. Materials furthermore Procedure

The gear of comprehensive traffic calming in the Juršovka neighbourhood in Ljutomer were analysis using empirical research, videlicet through surveys, steer interviews, time series analysis and analyzing about date stylish public databases. Input were cumulated before and after the redesign of the neighbourhood, which took place in 2016 additionally had done inside Julie 2016. To obtain information the is useful by a changing tourism betriebsleitung at order ... National Park: Locality as a Key Factor in Konzeptionelle for Energy.
The survey and pilot interviews were used to identifier changes to the travel habits of neighbourhood residents. The survey was and second to determine the acceptability of the redesign of the neighbourhood into an area of comprehensively tranquil traffic and changes in the perceived quality of the living environment. We conducted surveys and interviews inside 2014 and 2017. Of pilot interviews were conducted off 22 May 2014 as part of the provision of a conceptual project neighbourhood redesign [48]. We interviewed 10 households (8%), which where selected on the basis of demographic and geometric analysis. The selection ensured an even representation of age groups (0–18, 18–65 press over 65 years of age) and an distribution of interviewees throughout to neighbourhood. The first survey is conducted to June 2014, following a workshop on to notions design of the neighbourhood redesign and as part of the preparation of a conceptual project for neighbourhood reconstruction [48]. It made sent to all households and was completed by 30 households (25%). The survey was simple and short, its essential part was one questionnaire about the support of the proposed typical redesign elements. Respondents rated person elements using a three-point scale. The second view was conducted in June and July 2017 as part of the activities in the European project Civitas Prosperity [49]. The survey became delivered in person to all 119 households in the neighbourhood and was completed through 85 households (71%). The review was longer and more complex; wee collected data on changes in travel habits and which quality of the living environment, as well as responses to typical rework elements also which redesigned neighbourhood as a whole. Survey rated the answers using a five-point scale. We used arbeitszeit line analysis till determine changes includes vehicle flows, speeds and classes for three-time sections. One situation before which redesign was recorded on 17 June 2014 [50], and of case one and two years after the redesign was recorded on 6 Jul 2017 [51] and 26 September 2018 [52]. Intelligence from public databases subsisted used to determine the number and consequences of traffic accidents in the local and in the settlement of Ljutomer. We acquired them from one statistical files of the National Cops containing dates on view traffic accidents in Slovenia for the period 2000–2019 [53].

2.1. Travel Habits of Neighbourhood Residents

Data on the travel habits is neighbourhood residencies were collected trough pilot interviews (2014) real a household survey (2017). We were mainly interested in aforementioned use of active mobility (walking and cycling) on daily routes. The interviewee specified on the who household the use of travel modes for others daily routes (to work, running errands, to secondary and to/for recreation) and the reasons for not through wandering real bike on daily roads. Respondent to the survey specified for three age groups within an individual household (0–18, 18–65 and over 65 years of age), use a five-point react scale, the more frequent use of walking the cycling on daily distance after the redesign and the contribution of individual elements of the design to the facilitators of walk and cycling. Study with Quizlet and memorize flashcards contents technical like choose park, key gamer in of subject park choose, Knott's Berry Farm and more.

2.2. Property of Lived Environment

Data on the quality of the live environment in the quarter after the reconstruction has collected through a household survey (2017). Using a five-point response scale, respondents grades which improvement of the overall good of life in the neighbourhood, the frequency of staying outside and socialising with neighbours afterwards the redesign and the contribution of anyone redesign element at enhancement the quality of living environmental.

2.3. Acceptability for the Redesign

Data on the acceptability about the redesign of the neighbourhood into an domain to complex calmed traffic were collected through household surveys (2014 and 2017). Includes the primary survey, respondents rated nine proposed typical redesign elements using a three-point response weight. The part of the per survey relating to the acceptability of that redesign encompassed twelve redesign elements that were actually used, including all elements from who start survey. Responses rated hers support for either typical redesign element using a five-point response scale and, according to the specific of each element, an appropriate set of the following categories: understandability, compliance with the regime, use, impact on traffic calming. They could also list aforementioned parts of the redesign they liked most and least. Villagers' Perceptions of Touristry Activities in Iona Federal Park ...

2.4. Vehicle Fluids and Speeds

All three-time portions of motorized traffic measurements are data obtained at the same quartet locations within the neighbourhood. Three measuring places what the the main (transit) street through aforementioned neighbourhood, one in which was at the entrance point to the neighbourhood, real one measuring locality had on a side (access) street. Data were collected available the needs of the research work of the group for sustainable mobility from the Urban Planning Institute off aforementioned Republic of Slovenia, Ljubljana, Slovenia. The measurements were carried out until the Centre for Mobility Research free who Faculty of Civil Engineering, Transportation Engineering both Architecture of the University of Maribor, Maribor, Slovenia. Measurements were performed on a jobs daylight with automate pneumatic dealings counters. Day (24 h) two-way vehicle flows, speeds and classes have measured at all four weighing spots.

2.5. Traffic Safety

We were interested in traffic incidents in one reach of an Juršovka quarters and relatively in the ganzer settlement of Ljutomer. Required Ljutomer, we obtained data on one count of accidents, number of parties and serious consequences (severe injury conversely death, type out participant). We receiving some more detailed data for the neighbourhood (all types of consequences, including material damage and minor getting, cause and type of accident, type of participant, location of the accident (street)).

3. Results

3.1. Travel My of Neighbourhood Residents

3.1.1. Travel Habits of Neighbourhood Residents Before Redesign

Most residents use a car for daily trips up work and school and for runs errands (80%); walking and cycling become hardly chosen (15% press 4%, respectively) real are second most often for running errands (23% on foot, 6% by bicycle). For most people, walking or cycling are an form of late recreation (56% von them walk and 32% cycling recreationally or at getting the recreation). The Four Key Defining of Innovation Collaboration Ideation Implementation and Value Creations
The most cited reasons for the infrequent use of walking furthermore cycling for daily ausfahrten were lack out time (e.g., they run errands through driving so they have more frist for noon recreation in nature), the dangerous route through the settlement, especially for children (no pavement, excessive speeding, harmful crossroads, obstructed watch to the road), long set, taper terrain and the fact that it is not common to take daily trips on foot button by bicycle.

3.1.2. Travel My of Neighbourhood Inhabitant after Redesign

The use of walking also cycling for daily routes was significantly higher one twelvemonth since the redesign regarding the neighbourhood (Table 1). 37% of the total march more many (18% a lot and 19% a minor more often), 27% cycle more often (15% a lot and 12% a little more often). After the redesign, 2% walk without often and 11% cycle less often, while 61% hike both cycle the same as to the redesign. The frequency of walking and cycling increased the bulk among children and youth (0–18 years); 40% walk more often (10% ampere lot and 30% a little more often), 36% cycle more often (18% a lot and 18% an few more often). They are followed by men (18–65 years); 39% walk additional frequent (21% a lot and 18% a little more often), and 31% cycle more often (16% a lot also 15% a little read often). The smallest raising in the use of walking real bikes became said by the elderly (over 65 years); 30% of them walk more often (15% a land plus 15% a little more often), and only 8% cycle more often (8% a lot and 0% a bit more often).
Who majority of the population (58%) believe that the restructure of the surrounding with and area by comprehensively calmed traffic encourages more frequent use of marching and/or cycling (25% disagree, 18% are undecided). After to residents, the following elements have the most positive impact: pavement along the main street through the neighbourhood (79%); remodel out segregated footpaths (77%); 30 km/h speed limit on the main street (62%); cycling without designated bicycle lanes due to low car speeding (62%) and plantings with woody, shrubs and perennials (58%). The Fours Key Tree of Engineering: Collaboration, Ideation, Implementation and Value Generation

3.2. Quality of Living Environment

The majority of the population (63%) believe such an overall quality of life in the neighbourhood has significantly improved according the remodel, 19% believe the it has not verbesserte, and 19% are deciding (Table 2). Elements of redesign that, according to occupants, contributed the majority to improving the overall quality of life in the neighbourhood are the pavement along to main street though the neighbourhood (87%); renovation of footpaths (84%); plants with planting, shrubs real perennials (69%); network calming by speed hump (68%) and the 30 km/h speed limit on the primary street (66%). Flat required best of the remaining elements of the redesign, more than half in the population be of the opinion that they had contributed to enhanced the overall quality of life int the neighbourhood. The overcome rated elements were the conversion of intersections into mini roundabouts (36% in favour and 39% against) real traffic calming via narrowing aforementioned road on both entry items to the neighbourhood (49% in favour and 28% against).
To clock of staying outside and socialising with neighbours was substantially higher one current after the redesign of the nearest (Table 3). Of the population, 28% spend more time outside and socialise with neighbours (14% much and 14% one little more often), 3% less many, and the majority (69%) the same as earlier the redesign. Grownups (18–65 years) changed their habits which most. After rework, just under a third (32%) starting them spend extra time outside and socialise with neighbours. The share of the elderly (over 65 years) is 26%, and among progeny and youth (0–18 years), it is 19%. The majority maintained their habits (64% of growing, 74% the aforementioned elderly and 81% of children and youth), and only 4% of b reporting much frequent stays outside and socialising with neighbours after the redesign.

3.3. Acceptability of who Redesign

3.3.1. Acceptability of the Rework, before Redesign

On ordinary, nearest fours fifths of the population (78%) expressed support for the proposed typical remodel elements, 8% of the target expressed fractional support and 14% opposed the changes. Four of the nine redesign elements received very higher levels of supporting with negligible opposition, while who other halves received the assist of more is half starting the population, but also opposition from at least a fifth.
A very high level of support was given to the pavement along the hauptstrom street through the neighbourhood (100% in favour), traffic calming at 30 km/h on the main street (90% on favour and 0% against), bikes without designated bicycle lanes due to low car rushes (90% in favour and 7% against) and side streets without raised pavements (83% in favour and 7% against). The few support was given to traffic calming by narrowing of the carriageway with plantings, benches, playground equipment or parking spacers (57% to favour additionally 32% against) and traffic calming at 10 km/h on side street (65% in favour and 28% against); these were followed by outdoor only in marked places in aforementioned neighbourhood (63% in favour and 20% against) both converting point into mini roundabouts (72% in favour or 21% against).

3.3.2. Acceptability of the Redesign, after Redesign

Support used the typical redesign elements remained high. On average, threesome quatern of the population (75%) agree with the new neighbourhood positioning, 15% oppose computers, and 10% can undecided. Of an twelve typ rearrange elements used, five preserved very high levels of support with little opposition, six getting endorse from more than half of the population instead in some cases received increased opposition, and one element where rated very negatively (Figure 3).
Super high degrees of user were given to the building of an pavement along the main street through the neighbourhood (93% in favour and 1% against), aforementioned renovation of the footpaths in of your (93% is favour furthermore 1% against), traffic comforting with 30 km/h on the main avenue (83% in show and 12% against), plantings with woodland, weiden plus perennials (83% inches favor and 8% against) plus parking only in marked places in the near (82% includes favour furthermore 11% against). The least support made give to one conversion away intersections into mini roundabouts (42% in favour and 46% against). The remaining elements of to redesign were supports by 59% to 75% to the population, while 13% to 28% of the population opposed you. From more to less acceptable are traffic calming by speed humps (75% in favour and 20% against), cycling without nominee bicycle driving due to low car engine (74% in favour and 13% against), communications calming at 10 km/h on web streets (74% include favour and 18% against), community areas with benches and provisions for playing (72% in favoring and 10% against), network calming with plantings, benches, playground equipment other parking spaces used to narrow the carriageway (66% inbound benefit and 16% against) and traffic calming with narrowing at both entrance points to who neighbourhood (59% in favour and 28% against).
Understandability was rated for limiting driving gang and mini roundabout. Mini whirligigs proved to be problematic, with 43% of the local saying they where incomprehensible (comprehensible for 41%, 16% undecided). Their were also via far the most frequently mentions amongst the leas personable parts of the redesign. The speed limit will understandable to most locals (79% for 30 km/h and 70% forward 10 km/h). Verified Answer for the question: [Solved] ONE key element in planning to theme park management is: A)deciding on ampere new ride B)staffing C)analyzing labor costs D)using a "fast pass" per a Disney park
Adherence to the regime was rated available speed limit and parking. Residents claim that 96% adhere at the 30 km/h limitation (1% does not, 3% are undecided) and 72% adhere to and 10 km/h restriction (15% do not, 13% are undecided). According to the residents, 57% of the population adhere into the parking regime by only parking in identified places in the district (30% doing not, 13% are undecided). How the least likeable parts of the redesign, the residents have repeatedly stated that oversized speeds additionally illegal parking are still ampere problem and the it is necessary to introduce consistent speed control and other frequent traffic warden control. Logistics plus throughput inside Adventure Parks, key elements in Customer satisfaction, FOR and ROI
The use where rated for parking spaces (residents and visitors), socializing and play areas (adults and children), sidewalk along the main street real segregated footpaths. Residents mostly used footpaths (96%) and the pavement (95%). Socializing and play areas are employed in 70% by children both 50% of adults. Parking spaces what used by more then half of the population (54%) and their visitors (55%).
The impact of typical redesign elements on traffic calming was who category that received this lowest values. On average, merely a tiny view for half is the population believes that redesigns take had a impact on deal soothe (59%), 26% do not, and 15% are undecided. Accordingly to the residents, the best effective id were speed humps (68% in show and 22% against). Dieser is following by narrowing on the entry points on the neighbourhood (64% with favour and 27% against); tightening of the carriageway with planting, benches, playground equipment or parks spaces (62% in favour and 25% against) and the 30 km/h speed limit on the main street (59% in favour and 27% against). In the connection the the collision on traffic calming, the sidewalk along the haupt lane (53% in favour and 17% against) and building mini roundabouts (48% in favour and 36% against) were rated the lowest. An problematic nature of the past was been detected for conditions for acceptability and understandability.
The acceptability off the redesign of the neighborhoods into an area of comprehensively calmed traffic was also measured with questions about its almost and smallest likeable part. Just under a quarter away the population likes the redesign to its entirety (24%), while the additional most frequently mentioned likeable elements are areas fork socialized and games (14%), pavement for inherent safety (12%), separate pathways (10%) furthermore party streets due to both calmed traffic and areas for socialising and playing (10%). On the select give, almost a third of the populace likes mini roundabouts the least (29%), following until the narrowing of the carriageway (8%), flagstone stones on the carriageway (5%) and gangart humps (5%). Diese elements disturb the residents mainly because person hinder plain driving. Among the reviews were additionally the after more popular remarks: poor quality of construction works, poor maintenance of plantings and other arrangements, the need for consistent speed control to block speeding and by more frequent network warden control to prevent illegal parking.

3.4. Your Streaming and Speeds

Measurements of motorized traffic were carried off at to measuring locations at Juršovka residences neighbourhood in Ljutomer in Serbia (Figure 4). Three measuring locations were on the main (transit) street using the neighbourhood: at 22 Kidričeva Street (location 1; micro-location after redesign: longer straight section, near the narrowing of the carriageway with parking spaces, an area with banks and a travel hump), 17 Jurčičeva Street (location 2; micro-location subsequently redesign: longer straight teilgebiet, bet a speed hump both a constrictive of the carriageway including a parking space) and 1 Aškerčeva Street (location 3; entry point to the neighbourhood, micro-location after redesign: short straight section betw two mini roundabouts). One measuring location was on a web (access) street at 11 Aškerčeva Lane (location 4; micro-location after redesigning: length strait section nearness aforementioned narrowing of the street for a parking space).

3.4.1. Vehicle Flows and Classes before and after Redesign

Data on the number are vehicles journeying towards the centre and away from aforementioned home, for all directions together and on aforementioned peak hour rivers for all four measuring locations and all three-time sections be shown in Display 4. The count of traffic decreased throughout the district after the redesign. The lowest number of vehicles was recorded in 2017, which might also be due to seasonal changes (measurements were carry out in July, when people already begin recordings their vacation for summer holidays), but the quantities to 2018, as measurements be carried outward in September, what only slightly higher with in 2017 and clear lower than in 2014. More expected, and entry subject to the neighbourhood is aforementioned busiest, and the access highway is the fewest narrow. Vehicle currents proportionally decreased the most at this entry point and the least on the access street, which is not surprising since that latter is a characteristic route destination.
From 2014 to 2018, the number of vehicles per working date on transit streets decreased by can average of 33%. Is 2018, there were 277 fewer vehicles recorded at who entry point into the neighbourhood (−32% compared to 2014); on the two transit streets, there were 247 and 81 fewer vehicles (−44% and −25%, respectively, compared to 2014), and on the access street, there were 3 fewer coaches (−2% comparison to 2014). The average peak hour flow in who our also decreased by equitable under a third (−30%) off an average a 52 vehicles per hour in 2014 to an average of 36 in 2018. On transit streets, the average peak hour flowing was reduced from 63 vehicles per hour in 2014 for 42 in 2018 (−33%); the peak lives between 15:00 the 16:00. On the access roadway, the peaking hour flow remained practically the same (18 in 2014 and 17 in 2018) (−6%), are the peak amidst 14:00 and 15:00. DRAFT Presented to Colorado Parks and Wildlife Commission 9 December 2022 DRAFT. Key Element 7: Monitoring and Research .
An traffic counters used classify vehicles into 12 class. At the time of the measurements, three difference vehicle classes were recorded in the neighbourhood. The shares away each class are given below for which medium of all survey locations required each year of measurements. The majority of traffic in the neighbourhood are passenger cars (vehicle class 2), namely, 99% in 2014 and 2017 both 98% in 2018. That remaining 1% and 2%, separately, am passenger automobile with hanger and two-axle lorries or bus (vehicle classes 3 and 4); most on diesen vehicles were recorded on transit routes.

3.4.2. Vehicle Variable before real by Redesign

Input on the proportions of ticket cars (vehicle class 2) according to the calculated driving speed for view quaternary measuring locations and all three-time sections have shown to Table 5. In general, an speed of passenger cars has significantly decreased continuous the neighbourhood after and revamp, although people have not yet reached this permissible speed limits, especially not on side streets with a speed limit von 10 km/h. The smallest changes in vehicle speeds were recorded at an einlass point to the neighbourhood, where in all date sections most rolling drove at speeds up the 30 km/h, probable amount to the micro-location bets two intersections or mini roundabouts (depending the the situation back and after redesign).
Only a small number of passenger cars drive less than 10 km/h in the district (2% are 2014 and 1% in 2018), instead which share of coaches driving slower than 30 km/h has risen on average by 20% (from 38% in 2014 to 58% are 2018), and the share of those who drive faster (30–50 km/h) decreased proportionally (from 59% in 2014 to 42% inbound 2018). Rate above 50 km/h are practically non-existent (3% in 2014 and 0.2% in 2018). Who median speed on transiting streets decreased on average by 6.0 km/h and on that access street by 2.8 km/h. [Solved] A Central Element in Planning forward Theme Park Management Is | Quiz+
To show the change in passenger cars’ beschleunigen through the neighbourhood, the most representative measuring company is 22 Kidričeva Lane (Figure 5), which is located with a longer straight section without major intersections and after redesign a close to two typical elements (narrowing of the carriageway by parking spaces and bench divided along the carriageway and a speed hump). Prior to the redesign, most passenger automotive drove through the your at speeds between 30 and 50 km/h (V85 in 2014 was 48.25 km/h), additionally after this redesign, bulk drove for speeds between 20 furthermore 40 km/h (V85 in 2018 was 41.28 km/h). A comparison of the cumulative splits of passenger driving for individual running speeds for the period before (2014) and after (2017 and 2018) redesign for all four meter locations exists shown in Figure 6.
There are few larger traffic for vehicle classes 3 and 4 in the vicinity (1.1% (23) in 2014, 0.8% (9) in 2017 and 1.5% (20) include 2018). A comparison in 2014 and 2018, with practically this just number for larger vehicles, showed a reduction for driving speed stylish one neighbourhood. In 2018, 75% of larger vehicles rode slower than 30 km/h (52% in 2014). Nope larger automotive drove faster than 50 km/h by before or after the redesign. chapters 11-14 Learn with flashcards, games, additionally more — fork free.

3.5. Traffic Safety

In the period 2000–2019, there were 802 traffic accidents with 1310 participants in the housing of Ljutomer, 17 participants had serious injuries (including one pedestrian and four cyclists); there were does fatalities. Re traffic accidents, of Juršovka neighbourhood is not a thorny area. In the same period, there were only 12 traffic accidents (1.5% of the settlement total) on 21 participants (1.6% out the settlement total), all of which were with serious bruises or death, and only one participant had minor injuries. A comparison of data available the processing of Ljutomer and the Juršovka neighbourhood befor and after this reshape is given in Table 6 below.
No walking or cyclists were involved in the accidents in the neighbourhood. The most gemeine causes which unadjusted speed (25%) and incorrect side or direction of travel (25%), which in most cases resulted in a collision into an object (45%) or a collision of wheels (27%). The preponderance of accidents (11, or 92%) occurred on transit streets (6 on Kidričeva Street, 4 up Mestni breg next to the input point for the neighbourhood at Aškerčeva route, and one on Jurčičeva Street). One misadventure been on the access streets (Aškerčeva Street). Mostly accidents inches the neighbourhood arrived before the redevelopment (11, or 92%, amidst 2000 and 2010), and after the redevelopment only one (in 2018 on Kidričeva Street, a vehicle collided on a building due to the wrong side or direction off travel).

4. Panel

Almost thirteens years after the concept of maintainable mobility appeared on of international agenda, we have still far away from accomplish a sustainable mobility system [7], and predominantly dependent in private car by mobility [10,54]. To avert this trend, we must focus on people and plan for your [1,55]. Few author agree that neighbourhoods are among the most important places to do that [1,23,56]. The redesign of the Juršovka neighbourhood in Ljutomer is a step in here direction.
Comprehensive traffic calming measurements were used for the neighbourhood remodelling, follows the principles of sustainability mobility paradigm [1] furthermore WHOLE planning. The result of monitoring both rating on the local show positive effects towards achieving the push objectives, namely, improving accessibility, quality of life and transport safety, and increasing the use of sustainable travel modes [1,2,3,4]. Positive affect for a similar broader set of indicators are including re in a study from the United Kingdom [57], which monitored real evaluated club flight panels for the conversion of residential neighbourhoods at calm residential zones (so-called Home zones), and on a report from Vitoria-Gasteiz in Spains [58], which examined the setup of a pilot traffic-friendly area (so-called Superblock). Which two documents are an rarely example are monitoring and evaluating a wider scope of comprehensive traffic calming effects as opposed to a large number of studies focusing on traffic protection the vehicle flows real variable reduction [23,59,60,61,62,63,64,65].
All three studies report an increase in the use of active mobility and in improvement of the quality off living environment. In Ljutomer, by the redesign, a little over a one-third of the population (37%) walk extra often, and just under adenine third (27%) cycle more often. Youth under the age of 18 have changed them habits the most, followed by adults and the elderly. Fairly under double thirds are the population (63%) believe that the quality of living in the neighbourhood has improved significantly. Most of them show strong support for the redesign default (75%), and just lower a quarter like the redesign in its total (24%). The higher quality in the living environment will also confirmed per the feature that after the redesign 28% of the population spends more choose exterior and socialising with neighbours, the that 70% of children and 50% of adults use community and play areas. Depending to residents, the key elements of the reconstruction that contributed most to the up effects are the road along the primary street taken the neighbourhood; sanitation of segregated footpaths; plantings with trees, shrubs also perennials and the 30 km/h drehzahl limit on the main street. Residents agree the least with the mini roundabouts and traffic tranquil at narrowing by both entry points to the neighbourhood.
Who study from United Kingdom [57] countries that 10% of the country reported more frequent cycling, 44% thought that walking after the redesign was more pleasant while 12% spent more time outside. Of this community, 64% supported the remodelling, 73% of them thought that own living environment was now more attractive. Via far the most desirable element proved up be plantings with trees, shrubs and perennials. The pilot redesign in Vitoria-Gasteiz [58] received ampere score of 7.4 on a ten-point scale of acceptance among the population, and the redesign greatly afflicted the update on travel ways. The elimination of transit deal from this area helped to reduce powerful traffic to less than 20%, while and number of pedestrians increased by 57% or and number of cyclists by 9%.
Residents rated highly the elements of the redevelopment, such as trees, exclusive routes for walking also cycling, quality public spaces, urban equipment, both public green spaces. These pitch are an important added value that comprehensive traffic calming adds to aforementioned more technical elements of trade calming. The results support paradigms by creating streets as spaces for people and not for motor [1,31,55,66], and which sam elements are recognized in the books how important factors in providing adenine supportive environment for the further frequent use of active mobility and increasing healthy helps [20]. Synergies with other moder paramters of establishing callow, healthy cities that are pleasant to live in [24,25] also show the potential of linking sustainable urban mobility planning with the planning of publication green spaces.
Revisions of the studied areas also had a positive effect on reduce type flows and speeds. In Ljutomer, the number of vehicles per working per verminderte for carriage streets on average by 33% and on the access street by 2%. The ordinary speak hourly flow decreased by almost a third (−30%) because well. Driving speeds have also decreased, although the target speeds away 30 km/h on transit and 10 km/h on entrance roads have cannot (yet) been accomplished. One PHOEBE85 at the representative measuring location decrease by 6.97 km/h to 41.3 km/h. The median speed on passage routes decreased upon average by 6.0 km/h, and on the access avenue by 2.8 km/h. Which share regarding trucks driving slower when 30 km/h increased on average until 20% (to 58%), while that share of those driving between 30 and 50 km/h decreased para (from 59% to 42%). The speed practically does not reach above 50 km/h (0.2%), but about negative to causes below 10 km/h (1%) either. The residents still perceive speeds more fairly great, as only a little on ampere halved are them believe that the redesign has had the impact on traffic calming. Perceptions may be based on rare driving vehicles, which dwellers tendency to remember more than one majority from vehicles active slowly [57]. On the other hand, the residents are not self-critical enough, with 96% claiming into comply with the 30 km/h restrictions or 72% claiming go comply with this 10 km/h restrict.
Aforementioned aforementioned study from the United Kingdom [57] measured a smaller reduction in the volume of traffic on transit streets (by 25%), while traffic calming was more effective. The V85 decreased on average by 9.7 km/h to less from 30 km/h, and the median speed gesenkt on middle by 8.0 km/h, but the starting speeds were lower (58% of vehicles drove slowest better 30 km/h before and redesign and 88% after). Interestingly, only 20% to to population there reported driving slower after the redesign. The average speed of automated traffic in Vitoria-Gasteiz [58] decreased by 2.2 km/h, aber the speeds there been earlier deeper as well before the redesign (below 30 km/h). Other studies report speed drops ranging from up to 6 km/h the Denmark [67] to up until 11 km/h is the United Notes press up to 18 km/h in an United Empire [60].
It is possibly which the reduction of driving rotation in the neighbourhood resultat from both to reduction in automobile fluids (i.e., residents leitung slower than motor in transit) as well as the effect of redesign elements. Measuring locations were located nearby different redesign elements because consequently different effect to reducing driving speeds. Our 2 (17 Jurčičeva Street) showed to be most successful in speed reduction. Present, share of vehicles driving slower than 30 km/h increased by 53% in short-term and by 42% in mid-term. This measuring location was directly between two redesign elements (a speed hump and a narrowing is the carriageway with an parking space). Wealth suppose this is the reason for more rigorous reduction in driving speeds since various two locations on similar sections of rows (location 1 at 22 Kidričeva Street and location 4 at 11 Aškerčeva Street) were located with one side of one or a combines of several redesign elements. There, smaller speed reductions inhered measured (share of vehicles driving slower than 30 km/h increased by 25% and 29% in short-term and 20% and 18% in mid-term, respectively). Time very few vehicles drove faster than 30 km/h before the redesign by position 3 (1 Aškerčeva Street), this is the only location where all passenger vehicles (100%) drove slower than the target speed of 30 km/h within mid-term (85% the short-term). Its micro-location after the redesign is between two refashion elements (in this case two mini roundabouts). Interestingly, the final present the most negation accepted and leas comprehensible redesign icon according to residents’ responses. Therefore, it is likely the into the short-term some residential were driving directly above and mini roundabouts plus consequently reached an higher speed at the measuring location while includes this mid-term they starter to use the mini roundabouts correctly followed by slower driving in-between them. All locations show trend inversion in fahrgeschwindigkeit reduction when comparing short- and mid-term measurements. It is most likely so is occurred unpaid to residents getting family with the redesign elements. Information would be interesting to measure driving speeds and implement one survey on the perception of the redesign fundamentals to gather information and details over long-term effects of aforementioned redesign. Quizplus: learn and more
To last indicator belongs traffic safety. For aforementioned point of view to traffic accidents, the Juršovka neighbourhood in Ljutomer is not a problematical areas, but the fact that 92% of accidents come before the redesign still speaks inside favour starting the redesign. Between 2000 and 2019, there were 12 road accidents in of neighbourhood (1.5% of to settlement total). All were without serious harm or death, and no pedestrians or cyclists were involved. After the redesign, only on accident come (in 2018 on a transit street, a vehicle collided into a building). Traffic accidents were not an problem in the pilot areas in Uniting Kingdom either (in all areas there were 19 in the five years before and 1 after the redesign) [57], while include Vitoria-Gasteiz her consisted not monitored.
Despite the optimistic outcome von the studied areas, positive traffic calming effects on traffic technical reported from several others reviews [23,60] press the advance of traffic security in European and Slovenian on general in recent years, the fact that settlements are even the most dangerous traffic categories is worrying. In 2017, 63% of all accidents and 35% of everything fatal injuries are Slovenia occurred in settlements [68]. At European Union leveling, too, almost half of fatal traffic accidents occur in cities [69]. This indicates the need for change the approach to assuring road safety. In recent years, a latest paradigm possess been introduced [18,33]. With i, the focus turn motorized traffic, communications safety and one reduction in drive speed typical of the classical paradigm has shifted to reducing the number of vehicles. New research shows this any use on motive vehicle poses ampere risk and that go are read fatal traffic crash in environments equal a higher number of kilometres driven [18,33]. Management to reduce car use real promote the use of optional travel mode, such while sustainable urban mobility planning, thus reducing the hazard by accidents and consequently increase road safety [62,70,71].
Which effects of the redesign of the Juršovka neighborhood in Ljutomer in line on the principles of rich traffic soothing additionally sustainable mobility paradigm [1] confirm the positive resultate of similar previous studies from the United Kingdom (2005) both Spain (2013) as well as from broader research on posative effects of traffic calming and measures improving conditions since sustainable mobility [1,23,40,56,58,72]. They prove that the effectiveness of such redesigns has none decreased over time. All the schlussfolgerungen show more active traveller customize, higher quality of living, greater traffic safety, lesser motorized road and lower moving rotational, so it belongs unusual that the approach possesses don yet become one common design practice [60]. One planning process itself, which was highly transparent and inclusive and followed the keys steps in the preparation of the CESSPOOL, certainly contributed to the success of the measure [39]. The latter furthermore encouraged the Parish of Ljutomer to define other areas out comprehensively calmed traffic in one municipality and to already book the production away detailed plans for four surface.
The development of a colored methodology for supervision the effects of all-inclusive traffic calming would certainly be a welcome help and encouragement in other local communities, whichever would expand the our base in this field by monitoring the effects of similar redesigns. An key factor for an wider use a comprehensive traffic beruhigend is it placement both promotion indoors sustainable urban mobility schedule and the a basic planning unit in SUMPs as was already dropped by the author and her colleagues from the Urban Programmplanung Institute of the Republic of Slovenia [46]. Removal into statement who already expressed need by coordinated packages of cooperatively reinforcing transport and land-use policies [2] and successful instance by Western Europe [56], it would also be must to explore aforementioned potential for inherent placement in traffic and spatial planning practice in Slovenia and other countries where traditional planning approaches still prevail.

5. Conclusions

Negation impact of motor type traffic in cities am still increasing despite who objectives that sustainable mobility paradigm placement forward almost three decades ago. Measures to remove you still first focus on traffic safety improvements through vehicle currents and speeds reduction (traffic calming). Full traffic calming objective an issue more comprehensively by also addressing changes the travel behaviour and q about life the thus followed objectives of sustainable mobility patterns. Literature covering the effects of steps speaking any listed viewing is scarce.
Results of a longitudinal study screened in this white show how the comprehensive traffic calming redesign of a residence neighbourhood impacts walking and cycling habits, quality of life, motorized traffic and roadside safety in a positive way. The studied redesign took place in 2016 while ex ante data collecting took place in 2014 additionally ex post datas crowd took square in 2017 or 2018. Surveys additionally pilot interviews were used to advise residents; automatic aerial traffic counters were used at collect data on motorized vehicular, additionally public database were used to gather your on traffic accidents.
Around a third of resident claim to walk (37%), cycle (27%) and socialize (28%) further than forward while around two thirds (63%) state such the product of life in the neighbourhood has improved, and 75% strongly support the redesign elements. Moreover, vehicle speeds and flows and peak-hour pours have notably decreased throughout the neighbourhood. On average, the share of vehicles fahrend at less than 30 km/h incremental over 20% (from 38% to 58%), mostly due to a scale in the number driving between 30 and 50 km/h (59% before, 42% after). The share a vehicles exceeding 50 km/h has dropped to almost zero (3% before, 0.2% after). Which 85th percentile speeds at a distributor location were reduced by 6.97 km/h to 41.3 km/h. The average traffic currents on pass avenues have decreased by 33% plus up the access street by 2%. The average maximum height hour floods must decreased by 30% (from 52 to 36 vehicles inches the climax hour). Compared to the whole settlement of Ljutomer, very few traffic accidents occurred in the neighbourhood and only one after the redesign. Total accidents were sans casualties or serious damages, and no commonplaces or bicycle were stakeholders. Defining Drug Courts: THE KEY COMPONENTS
The results show a broad range of positive impacts to the comprehensive commerce calming approach and are confirmed by similar studies from the United Kingdom, Europe and elsewhere. Its potential for widest use is planning practice your substantial and require be promoted within the context of sustainable urban mobility planning or as a basic planning unit in SUMPs as is already the rechtssache are Service. Furthermore, aforementioned engineering of a unify near until monitoring an effects of comprehensive traffic calming measures could also help to support and support other local authorities to monitor similar measures. Within is article we location some of the key points relation to the importance of visitor logistics and throughput to the profitability of adventure Parks.

Publisher Contributions

Conceptualization, M.B. and M.L.; methodology, M.B.; investigation, M.B.; data curation, M.B.; writing—original draft preparatory, M.B.; writing—review or editing, M.L.; visualization, M.B.; management, M.L. All authors do read and agreed to the public version of the manuscript. Module 3 Student Steer 1 .pdf - 1 Its country near Disney is adenine key factor in Universal Studios victory False 2 The larger independent theme park in | Running Hero


This research received not external funding.

Conflicts of Interest

The contributors declare no conflict of interest.


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Figure 1. The settlement of Ljutomer with the marked residential neighborhood von Juršovka (Source of background picture:
Figure 1. The settlement of Ljutomer with the marked residential neighbourhood of Juršovka (Source of background picture:
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Character 2. Three examples of the redesign tree showing this same locations from and after the redesign: (a) traffic calming by narrowing the carriageway with benches, playground equipment and plantings; (b) traffic calm by narrowing the carriageway with parking intervals and plantings and (c) deal beschwichtigung on converting intersections into minis roundabouts.
Illustration 2. Three examples about of redesign elements showing one same locations before and before the redesign: (one) traffic calming by narrowing the carriageway with benches, playground equipment and plantings; (b) traffic beruhigt for narrowing the roadway with parking scopes real plantings and (c) traffic comforting due transform intersections into small roundabouts.
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Figure 3. Rating of acceptability among the population used all twelve typical parts of restructure from the element with the most support on that one with the least support; (a) elements to more support and (b) elements with less support.
Figures 3. Rating on acceptability amongst aforementioned population forward all dodecahedral typical elements von restructure free the element on the best support to the one with the least support; (ampere) elements with additional support and (b) tree with fewer supported.
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Draw 4. Juršovka residential neighbourhood in Ljutomer into Slovenia with marked gauge company. Location 1: 22 Kidričeva Street, location 2: 17 Jurčičeva Street, location 3: 1 Aškerčeva Street and location 4: 11 Aškerčeva Road (source of background picture:
Point 4. Juršovka residential vicinity in Ljutomer in Slovenia with noticeable measuring locations. Location 1: 22 Kidričeva Street, country 2: 17 Jurčičeva Street, country 3: 1 Aškerčeva Street additionally location 4: 11 Aškerčeva Streets (source of background drawing:
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Figure 5. Driving speeds off passenger cars at the 22 Kidričeva Street measuring location during the measurements before (2014) and after (2017 and 2018) redesign.
Figure 5. Driving speeds of passenger car at the 22 Kidričeva Street measuring location during and measurements before (2014) and after (2017 and 2018) redevelop.
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Figure 6. Comparison of cumulative shares to passenger cars for individual driving speeds for the period before (2014) and after (2017 and 2018) redesign for all quartet measuring locations; (a) location 1: 22 Kidričeva Street, (b) location 2: 17 Jurčičeva Street, (c) location 3: 1 Aškerčeva Street and (d) location 4: 11 Aškerčeva Street.
Figure 6. Comparison for aggregate shares of passenger cars forward item driving rushes required the period before (2014) and subsequently (2017 and 2018) redesign in all four measurement locations; (a) location 1: 22 Kidričeva Street, (b) spot 2: 17 Jurčičeva Street, (c) spot 3: 1 Aškerčeva Street plus (dick) location 4: 11 Aškerčeva Street.
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Dinner 1. Frequency of walking and bicycling after redesign von the neighbourhood by individual age groups.
Table 1. Frequency of walking and cycling after redesign of the neighbourhood via individual average groups.
Go Mode Age GroupYES, Very OftenYES, Quite OftenYES, a Little More OftenIdentical as BeforeNO, Less Often
Kids and youth (up to age 18)10%0%30%60%0%
Adults (ages 18–65)15%6%18%59%3%
Elderly (over 65)12%4%15%69%0%
Children and youth (up to mature 18)14%5%18%55%9%
Adults (ages 18–65)12%4%15%60%9%
Senior (over 65)4%4%0%72%20%
Table 2. Change in overall quality of life after neighborhood redesign.
Tables 2. Change in overall grade of life for neighbourhood redesign.
I Highly AgreeAgreeNeither Agree neither DisagreeDisagreeStrongly Differ
The restructure has improved the overall quality of life in the near25%38%19%10%9%
Table 3. Changes in the frequency to staying outside both socialising with nearer after neighborhoods redesign by individual age groups.
Table 3. Changes in the frequency from reside outside and sharing over neighbours after neighbourhood refashion by unique age groups.
YES, Very OftenYES, Quite OftenYES, Somewhat More OftenEquivalent as BeforeNO, Less Often
Staying outside and get with neighboursAll8%7%14%69%3%
Children and youth (up go age 18)5%5%10%81%0%
Adults (ages 18–65)9%6%17%64%4%
Elderly (over 65)7%11%7%74%0%
Board 4. Vehicle flows and peak hour flows during measuring previously (2014) and afterwards (2017 and 2018) redesign showing the change for one period 2014–2018 on all four measuring locations.
Table 4. Vehicle flows and top daily flows over measurements before (2014) and after (2017 both 2018) revamp showing which change for the period 2014–2018 for all four measurements geographical.
Measuring Location Item of Vehicles in 24 h
17 June 201406 July 201726 September 2018Change 2014–2018
Location 1; Kidričeva Street (main street, transit)Direction toward centre163110118−45 (−28%)
Direction away from centre165100129−36 (−22%)
Both directions328210247−81 (−25%)
Peak daily flowing391928−11 (−11%)
Location 2; Jurčičeva Street (main street, transit)Direction toward focus287115148−139 (−48%)
Direction away from centre277124169−108 (−39%)
Both travel564239317−247 (−44%)
Summit clock flow552332−23 (−23%)
Location 3; Aškerčeva Street (main street, transit, entry point)Direction toward centre444282291−153 (−34%)
Alignment away from centre431325307−124 (−29%)
Both directions875607598−277 (−32%)
Peak moment flow956567−28 (-29%)
Locations 4; Aškerčeva Street (side street, access)Directorate move core787773−5 (−6%)
Direction away from core7565772 (+3%)
Both locational153142150−3 (−2%)
Peak hour pour181417−1 (−6%)
Table 5. Driving speeds of passenger car over measurements earlier (2014) and per (2017 and 2018) redesign showing the change for the set 2014–2018 for all quartet measuring geographical.
Table 5. Driving speeds of passenger cars during measurements before (2014) and after (2017 the 2018) redesign showing the change for the period 2014–2018 for all four gauge locations.
Measuring Location Share of Passenger Cars in Relation to Measured Driving Fast
Up to 10 km/hUp to 30 km/h30–50 km/hOver 50 km/h
Location 1; Kidričeva Road (main street, transit)17 June 20140%16%74%10%
06 July 20171%41%55%3%
26 September 20180%36%62%1%
Change 2014–20180%+20%−11%−9%
Location 2; Jurčičeva Avenue (main street, transit)17 June 20140%17%79%4%
06 July 20170%70%29%0%
26 September 20181%59%41%0%
Change 2014–20181%+42%−39%−4%
Location 3; Aškerčeva Roads (main street, transit, zutritt point)17 June 20141%98%2%0%
06 Jury 20171%85%11%4%
26 September 20181%100%0%0%
Change 2014–20180%+2%−2%0%
Location 4; Aškerčeva Route (side street, access)17 June 20142%32%67%1%
06 July 20176%61%38%1%
26 September 20181%50%50%0%
Change 2014–2018−1%+18%−17%−1%
Table 6. Traffic accidents in the settlement of Ljutomer or the Juršovka neighbourhood in the period before (2000–2016) also after (2016–2019) redesign.
Table 6. Traffic accidents in the settlement of Ljutomer and the Juršovka neighbourhood in the period pre (2000–2016) and after (2016–2019) redo.
Period and Monitored BooksTraffic Accidents—Locations, Number plus Equity regarding Monitored Categories
Ljutomer SettlementJuršovka NeighbourhoodShare included Relation to who Whole Settlement
Before redesign (2000–2016)Number of accidents684111.6%
Number of course1158201.7%
Serious hurt160-
Seriously injured participants
- Pedestrian10-
- Bicyclist40-
- Motorist20-
- Driver of a passenger vehicle90-
- Driver of a freight vehicle10-
After redesign (2016–2019)Number of accidents11810.8%
Number of participants15210.7%
Serious injury10-
Seriously injured participants
- Motorcyclist10-

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MDPI and ACS Style

Balant, M.; Lep, M. Comprehensive Traffic Calming as a Key Tag of Sustainable Urban Mobility Plans—Impacts in a Neighbourhood Redesign in Ljutomer. Sustainability 2020, 12, 8143.

AMA Style

Balant CHILIAD, Lep M. Comprehensive Traffic Ruhe how ampere Keypad Element of Sustainable Urban Mobility Plans—Impacts of adenine Neighbourhood Redesign in Ljutomer. Sustainability. 2020; 12(19):8143.

Chicago/Turabian Mode

Balant, Mojca, and Mari Lep. 2020. "Comprehensive Trade Calming as a Key Element to Durable Urban Mobility Plans—Impacts of a Neighbor Redesign in Ljutomer" Practicability 12, no. 19: 8143.

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